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Legal Coordinated Cadastres – Theoretical Concepts and the Case of Singapore

Land, Kristin LU (2006) XXIII International FIG Congress
Abstract
The field of cadastre holds an inherent complexity much based on its interdisciplinary characteristics and the national uniqueness of each cadastral system. In addition, some cadastral terminology is vague or ambiguous, why omission of the explicit sense and context of a particular term may bring obscurity to international comparisons and analyses. The concept legal coordinated cadastre, occasionally mentioned in connection with visions and plans of cadastral modernization, is discussed here in order to clarify possible meanings and implications. In an elaborate form, such a cadastre denotes that all property boundaries within a jurisdiction are legally defined by survey accurate coordinates guaranteed by the State. In less extensive... (More)
The field of cadastre holds an inherent complexity much based on its interdisciplinary characteristics and the national uniqueness of each cadastral system. In addition, some cadastral terminology is vague or ambiguous, why omission of the explicit sense and context of a particular term may bring obscurity to international comparisons and analyses. The concept legal coordinated cadastre, occasionally mentioned in connection with visions and plans of cadastral modernization, is discussed here in order to clarify possible meanings and implications. In an elaborate form, such a cadastre denotes that all property boundaries within a jurisdiction are legally defined by survey accurate coordinates guaranteed by the State. In less extensive forms, the coordinates in a digital cadastre are important means of evidence but they do not prevail over intact physical monuments on the ground.



After an account of these theoretical issues, this paper presents the results of a case study of the recent cadastral reform in Singapore. The new Singaporean cadastre, effectuated in August 2004, is considered to be the first complete legal coordinated cadastre worldwide. This achievement involved great technical efforts as well as adjustments to the laws in force. For example, a new national reference system (SVY21) and a network of reference stations for GPS were established, enabling a systematic conversion of existing boundary data. When all boundaries were finally defined by SVY21 coordinates, the new cadastre was given legal significance according to the amended Boundaries and Survey Maps Act. From a legal perspective, this implies that the cadastral map coordinates are now conclusive evidence in court. The Chief Surveyor is however empowered to correct the cadastral map should it be defective due to e.g. errors in measuring or data conversion. Furthermore, the State does not guarantee the correctness of the cadastral boundary data, why the reliability of the coordinates is limited in some aspects. The Singaporean coordinated cadastre can hence be seen as a technically advanced system with a practical approach to the legal implications. (Less)
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XXIII International FIG Congress
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English
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yes
id
e7822354-181d-4b44-98ae-3592199e6d88 (old id 1024806)
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2008-02-04 13:49:40
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@misc{e7822354-181d-4b44-98ae-3592199e6d88,
  abstract     = {The field of cadastre holds an inherent complexity much based on its interdisciplinary characteristics and the national uniqueness of each cadastral system. In addition, some cadastral terminology is vague or ambiguous, why omission of the explicit sense and context of a particular term may bring obscurity to international comparisons and analyses. The concept legal coordinated cadastre, occasionally mentioned in connection with visions and plans of cadastral modernization, is discussed here in order to clarify possible meanings and implications. In an elaborate form, such a cadastre denotes that all property boundaries within a jurisdiction are legally defined by survey accurate coordinates guaranteed by the State. In less extensive forms, the coordinates in a digital cadastre are important means of evidence but they do not prevail over intact physical monuments on the ground. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
After an account of these theoretical issues, this paper presents the results of a case study of the recent cadastral reform in Singapore. The new Singaporean cadastre, effectuated in August 2004, is considered to be the first complete legal coordinated cadastre worldwide. This achievement involved great technical efforts as well as adjustments to the laws in force. For example, a new national reference system (SVY21) and a network of reference stations for GPS were established, enabling a systematic conversion of existing boundary data. When all boundaries were finally defined by SVY21 coordinates, the new cadastre was given legal significance according to the amended Boundaries and Survey Maps Act. From a legal perspective, this implies that the cadastral map coordinates are now conclusive evidence in court. The Chief Surveyor is however empowered to correct the cadastral map should it be defective due to e.g. errors in measuring or data conversion. Furthermore, the State does not guarantee the correctness of the cadastral boundary data, why the reliability of the coordinates is limited in some aspects. The Singaporean coordinated cadastre can hence be seen as a technically advanced system with a practical approach to the legal implications.},
  author       = {Land, Kristin},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {Legal Coordinated Cadastres – Theoretical Concepts and the Case of Singapore},
  year         = {2006},
}