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Clinical measures of islet function: usefulness to characterize defects in diabetes.

Ahrén, Bo LU ; Pratley, Richard E; Soubt, Mazin; Dunning, Beth E and Foley, James E (2008) In Current Diabetes Reviews 4(2). p.129-145
Abstract
In healthy individuals, the ability of the pancreatic islets to sense and respond appropriately to changes in plasma glucose levels maintains plasma glucose levels within a narrow range despite broad fluctuations in nutrient intake and variable "demand" for insulin imposed by changes in insulin sensitivity. This ability of the pancreatic islets is lost in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). For studies on the pathophysiology of T2DM, methods for analyzing islet function are therefore required. Many methods of varying degrees of complexity have been developed and used to measure pancreatic beta-cell function in humans and to characterize the defects existing in patients with T2DM or precursors thereof (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and impaired... (More)
In healthy individuals, the ability of the pancreatic islets to sense and respond appropriately to changes in plasma glucose levels maintains plasma glucose levels within a narrow range despite broad fluctuations in nutrient intake and variable "demand" for insulin imposed by changes in insulin sensitivity. This ability of the pancreatic islets is lost in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). For studies on the pathophysiology of T2DM, methods for analyzing islet function are therefore required. Many methods of varying degrees of complexity have been developed and used to measure pancreatic beta-cell function in humans and to characterize the defects existing in patients with T2DM or precursors thereof (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]). Significant, although perhaps less progress has been made toward development of methods to characterize alpha-cell function. This work presents an overview of clinical measures of islet function, from simple static measures such as HOMA-beta to the more complex dynamic measures such as those utilizing stepped hyperglycemic clamps and acute administration of arginine to obtain more detailed information regarding the interaction of glucose and non-glucose secretagogues. We emphazise the need for accurate measures of alpha-cell function, and we discuss the strengths and limitations of the various methods, highlighting the many aspects of both alpha- and beta-cell function that become impaired during development of T2DM. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Current Diabetes Reviews
volume
4
issue
2
pages
129 - 145
publisher
Bentham Science Publishers
external identifiers
  • PMID:18473760
  • Scopus:0027276368
ISSN
1573-3998
DOI
10.1016/0163-4453(93)92761-K
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
3d7a21fd-de0e-4392-9a93-56e81c25f602 (old id 1154276)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18473760?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2008-06-02 15:42:27
date last changed
2016-10-13 04:35:27
@misc{3d7a21fd-de0e-4392-9a93-56e81c25f602,
  abstract     = {In healthy individuals, the ability of the pancreatic islets to sense and respond appropriately to changes in plasma glucose levels maintains plasma glucose levels within a narrow range despite broad fluctuations in nutrient intake and variable "demand" for insulin imposed by changes in insulin sensitivity. This ability of the pancreatic islets is lost in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). For studies on the pathophysiology of T2DM, methods for analyzing islet function are therefore required. Many methods of varying degrees of complexity have been developed and used to measure pancreatic beta-cell function in humans and to characterize the defects existing in patients with T2DM or precursors thereof (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]). Significant, although perhaps less progress has been made toward development of methods to characterize alpha-cell function. This work presents an overview of clinical measures of islet function, from simple static measures such as HOMA-beta to the more complex dynamic measures such as those utilizing stepped hyperglycemic clamps and acute administration of arginine to obtain more detailed information regarding the interaction of glucose and non-glucose secretagogues. We emphazise the need for accurate measures of alpha-cell function, and we discuss the strengths and limitations of the various methods, highlighting the many aspects of both alpha- and beta-cell function that become impaired during development of T2DM.},
  author       = {Ahrén, Bo and Pratley, Richard E and Soubt, Mazin and Dunning, Beth E and Foley, James E},
  issn         = {1573-3998},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {129--145},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0xac6c9c0)},
  series       = {Current Diabetes Reviews},
  title        = {Clinical measures of islet function: usefulness to characterize defects in diabetes.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0163-4453(93)92761-K},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2008},
}