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Implant size and fixation mode strongly influence tissue reactions in the CNS.

Thelin, Jonas LU ; Jörntell, Henrik LU ; Psouni, Elia LU ; Garwicz, Martin LU ; Schouenborg, Jens LU ; Danielsen, Nils LU and Eriksson Linsmeier, Cecilia LU (2011) In PLoS One 6(1).
Abstract
The function of chronic brain machine interfaces depends on stable electrical contact between neurons and electrodes. A key step in the development of interfaces is therefore to identify implant configurations that minimize adverse long-term tissue reactions. To this end, we here characterized the separate and combined effects of implant size and fixation mode at 6 and 12 weeks post implantation in rat (n = 24) cerebral cortex. Neurons and activated microglia and astrocytes were visualized using NeuN, ED1 and GFAP immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. The contributions of individual experimental variables to the tissue response were quantified. Implants tethered to the skull caused larger tissue reactions than un-tethered implants.... (More)
The function of chronic brain machine interfaces depends on stable electrical contact between neurons and electrodes. A key step in the development of interfaces is therefore to identify implant configurations that minimize adverse long-term tissue reactions. To this end, we here characterized the separate and combined effects of implant size and fixation mode at 6 and 12 weeks post implantation in rat (n = 24) cerebral cortex. Neurons and activated microglia and astrocytes were visualized using NeuN, ED1 and GFAP immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. The contributions of individual experimental variables to the tissue response were quantified. Implants tethered to the skull caused larger tissue reactions than un-tethered implants. Small diameter (50 µm) implants elicited smaller tissue reactions and resulted in the survival of larger numbers of neurons than did large diameter (200 µm) implants. In addition, tethering resulted in an oval-shaped cavity, with a cross-section area larger than that of the implant itself, and in marked changes in morphology and organization of neurons in the region closest to the tissue interface. Most importantly, for implants that were both large diameter and tethered, glia activation was still ongoing 12 weeks after implantation, as indicated by an increase in GFAP staining between week 6 and 12, while this pattern was not observed for un-tethered, small diameter implants. Our findings therefore clearly indicate that the combined small diameter, un-tethered implants cause the smallest tissue reactions. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
PLoS One
volume
6
issue
1
publisher
Public Library of Science
external identifiers
  • WOS:000286662800022
  • PMID:21298109
  • Scopus:79551518157
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0016267
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
0e4ffa70-d828-42a9-9e9c-76977122fc82 (old id 1832224)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21298109?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2011-03-01 13:13:31
date last changed
2016-12-04 04:41:35
@misc{0e4ffa70-d828-42a9-9e9c-76977122fc82,
  abstract     = {The function of chronic brain machine interfaces depends on stable electrical contact between neurons and electrodes. A key step in the development of interfaces is therefore to identify implant configurations that minimize adverse long-term tissue reactions. To this end, we here characterized the separate and combined effects of implant size and fixation mode at 6 and 12 weeks post implantation in rat (n = 24) cerebral cortex. Neurons and activated microglia and astrocytes were visualized using NeuN, ED1 and GFAP immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. The contributions of individual experimental variables to the tissue response were quantified. Implants tethered to the skull caused larger tissue reactions than un-tethered implants. Small diameter (50 µm) implants elicited smaller tissue reactions and resulted in the survival of larger numbers of neurons than did large diameter (200 µm) implants. In addition, tethering resulted in an oval-shaped cavity, with a cross-section area larger than that of the implant itself, and in marked changes in morphology and organization of neurons in the region closest to the tissue interface. Most importantly, for implants that were both large diameter and tethered, glia activation was still ongoing 12 weeks after implantation, as indicated by an increase in GFAP staining between week 6 and 12, while this pattern was not observed for un-tethered, small diameter implants. Our findings therefore clearly indicate that the combined small diameter, un-tethered implants cause the smallest tissue reactions.},
  author       = {Thelin, Jonas and Jörntell, Henrik and Psouni, Elia and Garwicz, Martin and Schouenborg, Jens and Danielsen, Nils and Eriksson Linsmeier, Cecilia},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0xb5a9960)},
  series       = {PLoS One},
  title        = {Implant size and fixation mode strongly influence tissue reactions in the CNS.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016267},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2011},
}