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I stället för fängelse? En studie av vårdande makt, straff och socialt arbete i frivård

Svensson, Kerstin LU (2001)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Syftet med denna avhandling är att förstå och förklara frivården, som organisation och som praktik samt att få en fördjupad förståelse av förhållandet mellan stöd och kontroll. Avhandlingen bygger på två empiriska material. En studie av arkivhandlingar och publicerade texter från 1820-2000. En intervjustudie där tjugo frivårdsklienter, tjugo handläggare och tio lekmannaöverakare bidragit med sina berättelser om frivård. I det tidiga 1800-talets filantropi kan man finna ursprunget till det mönster som idag är frivårdens gemensamma minne, en idé om vårdande makt, ett löfte om förbättrad livssituation under förutsättning att den hjälpbehövande anpassar sig till hjälparen krav. Från tidigt 1800-tal... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Syftet med denna avhandling är att förstå och förklara frivården, som organisation och som praktik samt att få en fördjupad förståelse av förhållandet mellan stöd och kontroll. Avhandlingen bygger på två empiriska material. En studie av arkivhandlingar och publicerade texter från 1820-2000. En intervjustudie där tjugo frivårdsklienter, tjugo handläggare och tio lekmannaöverakare bidragit med sina berättelser om frivård. I det tidiga 1800-talets filantropi kan man finna ursprunget till det mönster som idag är frivårdens gemensamma minne, en idé om vårdande makt, ett löfte om förbättrad livssituation under förutsättning att den hjälpbehövande anpassar sig till hjälparen krav. Från tidigt 1800-tal till tidigt 1900-tal bildades filantropiska föreningar på statligt initiativ för att ordna arbete åt straffade som ville ha hjälp. Från tidigt 1900-tal till började tjänstemän anställas för att administrera och organisera arbetet. Hjälparbetet åt straffade blev ett led i socialpolitiken när socialdemokratins reformer tog fart och 1942 övertogs samordningen av arbetet av statliga myndigheter, skyddskonsulenterna som verkade fram till slutet av 1980-talet. Deras värv karakteriserades av samma idé om ett psykosocialt arbete med individer som i den kommunala socialvården. Från 1990-tal har frivården allt mer professionaliserats och tjänstemännen administrerar klienternas problem snarare än försöker hjälpa dem att lösa dem. Fortfarande är det i termer av "istället för fängelse" som frivården presenteras, men innebörden i orden har förändrats. Från att ha inneburit "något annat än" står de nu för "en annan form av". Med sin uppgift som komplement till fängelset, socialvården och andra människobehandlande organisationer verkar frivården förstärkande. Relationerna mellan de olika aktörerna varierar beroende på deras intentioner med kontakten. Beroende på sin syn på klienten och uppgiften kan handläggaren inta olika positioner. På samma sätt kan klienten inta olika positioner beroende på vilket intresse de har av att ha kontakt med en övervakare och av att agera tillsammans med denne. När parterna har liknande förhållningssätt till varandra genereras berättelser om frivårdens stödjande aspekter. När förhållningssätten skiljer sig blir det kontrollaspekterna som framträder. Såväl stöd som kontroll är möjligt i varje handling, varje samtal, varje interaktion mellan frivårdens aktörer. Det går inte att i sak skilja straff från behandling, stöd från kontroll, hjälp från disciplinering. Frivården byter skepnad i varje relation och tolkas olika beroende på vem som berättar och vem som tolkar. På så sätt kan den disciplinära makten verka och undvika det uttalade motståndet. Därigenom ges också möjlighet att individualisera stödet så att varje person kan få hjälp på det sätt som är rimligt för honom. (Less)
Abstract
The purpose of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between support and control. The purpose is reached by a study of the probation service as an organization and the practical side of its work The thesis is based on two empirical studies. One is a study of records and published texts from the period 1820-2000. The second is an interview study, in which twenty probation-service clients, twenty probation officers and ten layman supervisors have contributed their stories of the probation service. Assisted by Charles Tilly's (2000) explanations of categorical inequality, Michel Foucault's (1980; 1987) explanations of disciplinary power, and Erving Goffman's (1998) dramaturgic perspective, it has been possible to... (More)
The purpose of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between support and control. The purpose is reached by a study of the probation service as an organization and the practical side of its work The thesis is based on two empirical studies. One is a study of records and published texts from the period 1820-2000. The second is an interview study, in which twenty probation-service clients, twenty probation officers and ten layman supervisors have contributed their stories of the probation service. Assisted by Charles Tilly's (2000) explanations of categorical inequality, Michel Foucault's (1980; 1987) explanations of disciplinary power, and Erving Goffman's (1998) dramaturgic perspective, it has been possible to explain the patterns and the variations that are presented. During the first, disciplinary, period from the early 19th to the early 20th century, philantropic organizations tried to find work for offenders who wanted to lead a steady life. During the second period, from the turn of the century to the 1940s, the demands on the offenders had been specified and special officials were employed. The third period, from the 1940s to the end of the 1980s, was characterized by an idea of psychosocial work with individuals in a manner concurring with the work performed by the municipal social services. The fourth period, from the 1990s, is characterized by a "management" idea, in which the increasingly professionalized officials of the probation service administer the clients' problems rather than help solving them. The probation service is still presented in terms of "alternative", but the meaning of the words has changed. From their previous meaning of "something other than", they now mean "another form of". Complementing the prison, the social services and other human service organizations, the probation service has a strengthening effect Probation officers and clients vary in their attitude towards their common task.When the parties' attitudes towards each other are similar, their positions are congruous, and when their attitudes differ, their positions are discrepant. Congruous positions accumulate stories of the probation service's supportive aspects. When the positions are discrepant, the parties describe the action by the controlling aspects. The probation service changes its shape in every relation and will be interpreted differently depending on who is describing and who is interpreting. In this way, the disciplinary power will function and avoid the pronounced resistance. By that, it is also possible to individualize the support so as to help each person in the way most appropriate to him. (Less)
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author
opponent
  • Lektor Snare, Annika, Köpenhamns Universitet
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
theory of social work, Social changes, Sociologi, Sociology, Client, Social Worker, Relationship, Power, Social History, Social Work, Probation, Punishment, Sociala förändringar, teorier om socialt arbete, Social and economic history, Ekonomisk och social historia
pages
275 pages
publisher
School of Social Work, Lund University
defense location
March 30, 2001, Universitetshusets aula
defense date
2001-03-30 10:15
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
3634e2cf-74eb-47ec-b803-b6fb804aa7fa (old id 20358)
date added to LUP
2007-05-28 10:49:55
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:05
@misc{3634e2cf-74eb-47ec-b803-b6fb804aa7fa,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between support and control. The purpose is reached by a study of the probation service as an organization and the practical side of its work The thesis is based on two empirical studies. One is a study of records and published texts from the period 1820-2000. The second is an interview study, in which twenty probation-service clients, twenty probation officers and ten layman supervisors have contributed their stories of the probation service. Assisted by Charles Tilly's (2000) explanations of categorical inequality, Michel Foucault's (1980; 1987) explanations of disciplinary power, and Erving Goffman's (1998) dramaturgic perspective, it has been possible to explain the patterns and the variations that are presented. During the first, disciplinary, period from the early 19th to the early 20th century, philantropic organizations tried to find work for offenders who wanted to lead a steady life. During the second period, from the turn of the century to the 1940s, the demands on the offenders had been specified and special officials were employed. The third period, from the 1940s to the end of the 1980s, was characterized by an idea of psychosocial work with individuals in a manner concurring with the work performed by the municipal social services. The fourth period, from the 1990s, is characterized by a "management" idea, in which the increasingly professionalized officials of the probation service administer the clients' problems rather than help solving them. The probation service is still presented in terms of "alternative", but the meaning of the words has changed. From their previous meaning of "something other than", they now mean "another form of". Complementing the prison, the social services and other human service organizations, the probation service has a strengthening effect Probation officers and clients vary in their attitude towards their common task.When the parties' attitudes towards each other are similar, their positions are congruous, and when their attitudes differ, their positions are discrepant. Congruous positions accumulate stories of the probation service's supportive aspects. When the positions are discrepant, the parties describe the action by the controlling aspects. The probation service changes its shape in every relation and will be interpreted differently depending on who is describing and who is interpreting. In this way, the disciplinary power will function and avoid the pronounced resistance. By that, it is also possible to individualize the support so as to help each person in the way most appropriate to him.},
  author       = {Svensson, Kerstin},
  keyword      = {theory of social work,Social changes,Sociologi,Sociology,Client,Social Worker,Relationship,Power,Social History,Social Work,Probation,Punishment,Sociala förändringar,teorier om socialt arbete,Social and economic history,Ekonomisk och social historia},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {275},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x9e66c00)},
  title        = {I stället för fängelse? En studie av vårdande makt, straff och socialt arbete i frivård},
  year         = {2001},
}