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Mellan gåva och marknad : handel, tillit och materiell kultur under vikingatid

Gustin, Ingrid LU (2004) In Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology 34.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Frågan om marknadshandelns karaktär har aktualiserats genom de skandaler inom företagsvärlden som media har lyft fram under senare år. Dagens situation väcker frågor om den handel som förekom i äldre samhällen? Existerade marknadshandel till exempel under vikingatid? Om så var fallet hur uppfattades och hanterades marknadshandel i detta samhälle?



Handelns roll för det vikingatida samhället i Norden är ett område som sysselsatt arkeologer och historiker under lång tid. Under årens lopp har två mycket polariserade bilder utvecklats. Detta märks inte minst när det gäller forskningen om Birka där varuutbyten ofta beskrivs utifrån en av två schabloner. Den ena säger att i Birka... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Frågan om marknadshandelns karaktär har aktualiserats genom de skandaler inom företagsvärlden som media har lyft fram under senare år. Dagens situation väcker frågor om den handel som förekom i äldre samhällen? Existerade marknadshandel till exempel under vikingatid? Om så var fallet hur uppfattades och hanterades marknadshandel i detta samhälle?



Handelns roll för det vikingatida samhället i Norden är ett område som sysselsatt arkeologer och historiker under lång tid. Under årens lopp har två mycket polariserade bilder utvecklats. Detta märks inte minst när det gäller forskningen om Birka där varuutbyten ofta beskrivs utifrån en av två schabloner. Den ena säger att i Birka utövades endast fri marknadsinriktad handel medan den andra hävdar att Birka var ett centrum för administrerad och av kungamakten kontrollerad handel och att inga marknadsmässiga principer tillämpades. I avhandlingen undersöks hur dessa polariserade bilder har uppstått och ett mer nyanserat alternativ till de båda bilderna presenteras. Dessutom diskuteras den vikingatida marknadshandelns karaktär och praktik, vilka handelns aktörer var och hur föremål på olika sätt nyttjades för att skapa tillit mellan aktörer inom marknadssfären.



Det arkeologiska material som ligger till grund för diskussionerna om de kommersiella transaktionernas karaktär och praktik utgörs främst av de normerade och standardiserade vikter, i form av sfärer med platta poler och kubooktaedrar, som uppträdde i Östersjöområdet och längs de ryska floderna under 800-talet och 900-talet. Ytterligare material som analyseras är de föremålsgrupper som försågs med kubooktaedriska och viktlika ornament under vikingatid. Det rör sig dels om föremål med anknytning till vägning och mätning, dels om smycken bland annat ringspännen. De senare kan antas ha signalerat och burit på budskap om identitet och grupptillhörighet. Ringspännen med viktlika knoppar bildar därför utgångspunkt för diskussioner om handelns aktörer och om förekomsten av sociala relationer inom marknadssfären. (Less)
Abstract
The view of the exchange and trade that took place during the Viking Age has varied considerably. This variation is obvious from a scrutiny of how one and the same place, Birka, is described by different scholars over a period of a hundred years. Two very polarized pictures of Birka appear: A town with a mostly free market-oriented trade or an emporium with an administered commodity exchange controlled by the elite/king and with no market principles involved. This thesis aims at examining how these two polarized stereotypes have come into existence and at presenting a more varied picture. Other questions posed in this dissertation are geared to what we can say on the basis of material culture about the market sphere during the Viking Age.... (More)
The view of the exchange and trade that took place during the Viking Age has varied considerably. This variation is obvious from a scrutiny of how one and the same place, Birka, is described by different scholars over a period of a hundred years. Two very polarized pictures of Birka appear: A town with a mostly free market-oriented trade or an emporium with an administered commodity exchange controlled by the elite/king and with no market principles involved. This thesis aims at examining how these two polarized stereotypes have come into existence and at presenting a more varied picture. Other questions posed in this dissertation are geared to what we can say on the basis of material culture about the market sphere during the Viking Age. What was the character and practice of commercial transactions during the period? How were trust and stabilizing mechanisms in trade created? Who were the players in trade and what type of social relations occurred in the market sphere?



The material point of departure for the discussions about the character and practice of commercial transactions during the Viking Age consists above all of the cubo-octahedral weights and the cubo-octahedral design elements which can be associated with means of payment and the weighing of precious metals. Jewellery, such as penannular brooches, and other items of material culture which can carry messages about identity and group affiliation serve as a starting-point for discussions about actors in trade, social relations, and any organizations that may have existed in the market sphere. (Less)
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author
opponent
  • Professor Skre, Dagfinn, Oslo Universitet
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Ancient history, contextual archaeology, identity, style, trust, iconicity, penannular brooches, weights, the Baltic Sea area, Birka, emporium, port-of-trade, Polanyi, exchange, Viking Age, trade, Antikens och forntidens historia, Archaeology, Arkeologi
in
Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology
volume
34
pages
360 pages
defense location
Palaestra, Hörsal 1
defense date
2004-05-27 10:15
ISSN
0283-6874
ISBN
91-22-02073-X
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
18a85467-d4bc-4bf5-95ab-eaa159ff1ed0 (old id 21810)
date added to LUP
2007-05-28 11:59:12
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:01
@misc{18a85467-d4bc-4bf5-95ab-eaa159ff1ed0,
  abstract     = {The view of the exchange and trade that took place during the Viking Age has varied considerably. This variation is obvious from a scrutiny of how one and the same place, Birka, is described by different scholars over a period of a hundred years. Two very polarized pictures of Birka appear: A town with a mostly free market-oriented trade or an emporium with an administered commodity exchange controlled by the elite/king and with no market principles involved. This thesis aims at examining how these two polarized stereotypes have come into existence and at presenting a more varied picture. Other questions posed in this dissertation are geared to what we can say on the basis of material culture about the market sphere during the Viking Age. What was the character and practice of commercial transactions during the period? How were trust and stabilizing mechanisms in trade created? Who were the players in trade and what type of social relations occurred in the market sphere?<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The material point of departure for the discussions about the character and practice of commercial transactions during the Viking Age consists above all of the cubo-octahedral weights and the cubo-octahedral design elements which can be associated with means of payment and the weighing of precious metals. Jewellery, such as penannular brooches, and other items of material culture which can carry messages about identity and group affiliation serve as a starting-point for discussions about actors in trade, social relations, and any organizations that may have existed in the market sphere.},
  author       = {Gustin, Ingrid},
  isbn         = {91-22-02073-X},
  issn         = {0283-6874},
  keyword      = {Ancient history,contextual archaeology,identity,style,trust,iconicity,penannular brooches,weights,the Baltic Sea area,Birka,emporium,port-of-trade,Polanyi,exchange,Viking Age,trade,Antikens och forntidens historia,Archaeology,Arkeologi},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {360},
  series       = {Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology},
  title        = {Mellan gåva och marknad : handel, tillit och materiell kultur under vikingatid},
  volume       = {34},
  year         = {2004},
}