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Methods to Improve and Evaluate Spatial Data Infrastructures

Toomanian, Ara LU (2012)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Denna avhandling är inriktad på metoder för att förbättra och utvärdera infrastrukturer för geografiska data (eng. Spatial Data Infrastructure). Syftet har varit trefaldigt: att utveckla ett ramverk för hantering och utvärdering av en infrastruktur, att förbättra tillgängligheten av geografiska data i en infrastruktur, och för att förbättra kartografi i visningstjänster i en infrastruktur.

En infrastruktur för geografiska data har identifierats som ett paraply som täcker hela hanteringen av geografiska data. Det långsiktiga genomförandet av en infrastruktur ökar behovet för återkopplingar från skilda perspektiv både på kort och medellång sikt. I grunden behövs en strategisk plan med... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Denna avhandling är inriktad på metoder för att förbättra och utvärdera infrastrukturer för geografiska data (eng. Spatial Data Infrastructure). Syftet har varit trefaldigt: att utveckla ett ramverk för hantering och utvärdering av en infrastruktur, att förbättra tillgängligheten av geografiska data i en infrastruktur, och för att förbättra kartografi i visningstjänster i en infrastruktur.

En infrastruktur för geografiska data har identifierats som ett paraply som täcker hela hanteringen av geografiska data. Det långsiktiga genomförandet av en infrastruktur ökar behovet för återkopplingar från skilda perspektiv både på kort och medellång sikt. I grunden behövs en strategisk plan med konkreta mål för effektiv datainsamling och bra utbyte av geografiska data.

Den första studien i denna avhandling granskar hur metoder inom företagsutveckling kan användas för utveckling och utvärdering av en geografisk infrastruktur. Sammanlagt har fyra tekniker studerats och deras relevans för arbete med en geografisk infrastruktur diskuterats. För utvärdering av en geografisk infrastruktur rekommenderas användning av Balanced Scorecard (BSC). Fördelen med denna utvärderingsmetod är att den bildar ett ramverk där man kan studera infrastrukturen från flera perspektiv och även studera hur olika utvärderingsparametrar kan på påverka varandra över tiden. Detta studeras närmare i den andra studien i avhandlingen.

Ett huvudsyfte med en geografisk infrastruktur är att skapa en portal för distribution av geografiska data till användarna. Till denna portal, som ofta benämns geoportal, kopplas producenternas karttjänster, dvs. en användare ska kunna nå alla producenternas data via portalen. I den tredje studien utvecklade vi metoder för att bearbeta producenternas data för att bättre svara mot slutanvändarnas behov. Dessa metoder integrerades i en portalmiljö. På så sätt skapas en geoportal som har ett större utbud av data.

En användare ska kunna studera geografiska data i en geoportal. Detta leder ofta till problem i de fall då data kommer från olika producenter; data är helt enkelt inte anpassade till sampresentation. I de två avslutande studierna utvecklar vi ett antal kartografiska metoder för sampresentation av data. I fjärde studien inriktar vi oss på problemet hur tillämpningsdata kan överlagra en baskarta utan informationsförlust. I den femte studien utvecklas en metod för korrekt geometrisk och topologisk integrering av data. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis mainly focuses on methods for improving and evaluating Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs). The aim has been threefold: to develop a framework for the management and evaluation of an SDI, to improve the accessibility of spatial data in an SDI, and to improve the cartography in view services in an SDI. Spatial Data Infrastructure has been identified as an umbrella covering spatial data handling procedures. The long-term implementation of SDI increases the need for short/middle term feedbacks from different perspectives. Thus, a precise strategic plan and accurate objectives have to be defined for the implementation of an efficient environment for spatial data collection and exchange in a region. In this thesis, a comprehensive... (More)
This thesis mainly focuses on methods for improving and evaluating Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs). The aim has been threefold: to develop a framework for the management and evaluation of an SDI, to improve the accessibility of spatial data in an SDI, and to improve the cartography in view services in an SDI. Spatial Data Infrastructure has been identified as an umbrella covering spatial data handling procedures. The long-term implementation of SDI increases the need for short/middle term feedbacks from different perspectives. Thus, a precise strategic plan and accurate objectives have to be defined for the implementation of an efficient environment for spatial data collection and exchange in a region. In this thesis, a comprehensive study was conducted to review the current methods in the business management literature to approach to an

integrated framework for the implementation and evaluation of SDIs. In this context, four techniques were described and the usability of each technique in several aspects of SDI implementation was discussed.

SDI evaluation has been considered as one of the main challenges in recent years. Lack of a general goal oriented framework to assess an SDI from different perspectives was one of the main concerns of this thesis.

Among a number of the current methods in this research area, we focused on the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as a general evaluation framework covering all perspectives in an SDI.

The assessment study opened a window to a number of important issues that ranged from the technical to the cartographic aspects of spatial data exchange in an SDI. To access the required datasets in an SDI, clearinghouse networks have been developed as a gateway to the data repositories. However, traditional clearinghouse networks do not satisfy the end user requirements. By adding a number of functionalities, we proposed a methodology to increase the percentage of accessing required data. These methods were based on predefined rules and additional

procedures within web processing services and service composition subjects to develop an expert system based clearinghouses.

From the cartography viewpoint, current methods for spatial data presentation do not satisfy the user requirements in an SDI environment. The main presentation problem occurs when spatial data are integrated from different sources. For appropriate cartography, we propose a number of methods, such as the polygon overlay method, which is an icon placement approach, to emphasize the more important layers and the color saturation method to decrease the color saturation of the unimportant layers and emphasize the foreground layer according to the visual hierarchy concept.

Another cartographic challenge is the geometrical and topological conflicts in data shown in view services. The geometrical inconsistency is due to the artificial discrepancy that occurs when displaying connected information

from different sources, which is caused by inaccuracies and different levels of details in the datasets. The semantic conflict is related to the definition of the related features, i.e., to the information models of the datasets. To overcome these conflicts and to fix the topological and geometric conflicts we use a semantic based expert system by utilizing an automatic cartography core containing a semantic rule based component. We proposed a system architecture that has an OWL (Web Ontology Language) based expert system to improve the cartography by adjusting and resolving topological and geometrical conflicts in geoportals. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Prof. Kraak, Menno-Jan, University of Twente (ITC The Netherlands)
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Spatial data infrastructure, evaluation, balanced scorecard, geoportals, clearinghouse, web cartography, expert system, web services
pages
182 pages
publisher
Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University
defense location
hörsal Världen, rum 111, Geocentrum I, Sölvegatan10, Lund
defense date
2012-05-16 13:00
ISBN
978-91-85793-26-6
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
40d993fc-98ca-4f12-becd-a0e8d25c9048 (old id 2440810)
date added to LUP
2012-04-19 12:53:24
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:13
@misc{40d993fc-98ca-4f12-becd-a0e8d25c9048,
  abstract     = {This thesis mainly focuses on methods for improving and evaluating Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs). The aim has been threefold: to develop a framework for the management and evaluation of an SDI, to improve the accessibility of spatial data in an SDI, and to improve the cartography in view services in an SDI. Spatial Data Infrastructure has been identified as an umbrella covering spatial data handling procedures. The long-term implementation of SDI increases the need for short/middle term feedbacks from different perspectives. Thus, a precise strategic plan and accurate objectives have to be defined for the implementation of an efficient environment for spatial data collection and exchange in a region. In this thesis, a comprehensive study was conducted to review the current methods in the business management literature to approach to an <br/><br>
integrated framework for the implementation and evaluation of SDIs. In this context, four techniques were described and the usability of each technique in several aspects of SDI implementation was discussed. <br/><br>
SDI evaluation has been considered as one of the main challenges in recent years. Lack of a general goal oriented framework to assess an SDI from different perspectives was one of the main concerns of this thesis. <br/><br>
Among a number of the current methods in this research area, we focused on the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as a general evaluation framework covering all perspectives in an SDI. <br/><br>
The assessment study opened a window to a number of important issues that ranged from the technical to the cartographic aspects of spatial data exchange in an SDI. To access the required datasets in an SDI, clearinghouse networks have been developed as a gateway to the data repositories. However, traditional clearinghouse networks do not satisfy the end user requirements. By adding a number of functionalities, we proposed a methodology to increase the percentage of accessing required data. These methods were based on predefined rules and additional <br/><br>
procedures within web processing services and service composition subjects to develop an expert system based clearinghouses. <br/><br>
From the cartography viewpoint, current methods for spatial data presentation do not satisfy the user requirements in an SDI environment. The main presentation problem occurs when spatial data are integrated from different sources. For appropriate cartography, we propose a number of methods, such as the polygon overlay method, which is an icon placement approach, to emphasize the more important layers and the color saturation method to decrease the color saturation of the unimportant layers and emphasize the foreground layer according to the visual hierarchy concept. <br/><br>
Another cartographic challenge is the geometrical and topological conflicts in data shown in view services. The geometrical inconsistency is due to the artificial discrepancy that occurs when displaying connected information <br/><br>
from different sources, which is caused by inaccuracies and different levels of details in the datasets. The semantic conflict is related to the definition of the related features, i.e., to the information models of the datasets. To overcome these conflicts and to fix the topological and geometric conflicts we use a semantic based expert system by utilizing an automatic cartography core containing a semantic rule based component. We proposed a system architecture that has an OWL (Web Ontology Language) based expert system to improve the cartography by adjusting and resolving topological and geometrical conflicts in geoportals.},
  author       = {Toomanian, Ara},
  isbn         = {978-91-85793-26-6},
  keyword      = {Spatial data infrastructure,evaluation,balanced scorecard,geoportals,clearinghouse,web cartography,expert system,web services},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {182},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x995d898)},
  title        = {Methods to Improve and Evaluate Spatial Data Infrastructures},
  year         = {2012},
}