Advanced

Life paths through space and time: Adding the micro-level geographic context to longitudinal historical demographic research

Hedefalk, Finn LU (2016)
Abstract (Swedish)
Historisk-demografisk forskning är central för att förstå mänskliga beteenden och egenskaper genom historien, såsom fertilitet, dödlighet och migration. En väsentlig del inom historisk demografi är att utföra longitudinella analyser på mikronivå. Detta innebär att individer följs kontinuerligt över livscykeln utifrån demografiska händelser (födelse, giftermål, flyttningar och död) under flera generationer. Genom att inkludera geografiska sammanhang i sådana analyser kan vi studera hur geografiska faktorer har påverkat livsförhållanden genom historien. Användningen av geografiska faktorer på mikronivå i longitudinella analyser av historiska befolkningar är emellertid sällan möjligt eftersom data saknas. Därför har analyserna i huvudsak... (More)
Historisk-demografisk forskning är central för att förstå mänskliga beteenden och egenskaper genom historien, såsom fertilitet, dödlighet och migration. En väsentlig del inom historisk demografi är att utföra longitudinella analyser på mikronivå. Detta innebär att individer följs kontinuerligt över livscykeln utifrån demografiska händelser (födelse, giftermål, flyttningar och död) under flera generationer. Genom att inkludera geografiska sammanhang i sådana analyser kan vi studera hur geografiska faktorer har påverkat livsförhållanden genom historien. Användningen av geografiska faktorer på mikronivå i longitudinella analyser av historiska befolkningar är emellertid sällan möjligt eftersom data saknas. Därför har analyserna i huvudsak varit begränsade till att utföras på större geografiska regioner.

I denna avhandling ingår fem artiklar som syftar till att stärka och utveckla historisk-demografisk forskning genom att inkludera och studera geografiska faktorer på mikronivå i longitudinella historiska analyser.
Den första artikeln bidrar till standardiseringen av longitudinella demografiska data genom att utvidga en standardiserad datamodell så att geografiska data kan inkluderas. Den andra artikeln integrerar historiska kartor med demografiska data på individnivå. En central del är utveckling av konceptuella metoder för integrering av data och modeller för att hantera olika representationer av tid. Baserat på denna metodologi har vi integrerat historisk och modern detaljerad geografisk information med historisk-demografisk data på mikronivå från Skånes ekonomisk-demografiska databas (SEDD). Databasen omfattar alla individer som levt i fem skånska församlingar under perioden 1646 till nutid. Individerna följs kontinuerligt över livscykeln utifrån demografiska händelser och till dessa data har ekonomiska data (yrke, inkomst, jordinnehav) tillfogats. Vi geokodade c:a 53 000 individer i dessa församlingar till de fastigheter där de levde för perioden 1813-1914. Vidare har vi skapat årlig information om när varje fastighet skapades och upphörde att existera, och om eventuella förändringar i fastighetens geometri. Artikel nummer tre förbättrar och utvärderar den geokodade databasen och inkluderar årlig information om våtmarker.

I den fjärde artikeln studerar vi hur olika geografiska skalor i geokodningen och olika definitioner av geografiska faktorer påverkar kvaliteten på historisk-demografiska longitudinella analyser. Genom att använda den geokodade databasen analyserar vi hur befolkningstäthet och närhet till våtmarker påverkar risken att dö att under perioden 1850-1914. Studien visar att även små skillnader mellan den mest detaljerade skalan (dvs., fastighetsnivå) och de något grövre geografiska skalorna, och valet av metod för att definiera geografiska faktorer, väsentligt påverkade resultaten av de historisk-demografiska analyserna. Därför behövs sannolikt en geokodning till fastigheter för att möjliggöra finskaliga analyser där geografiska faktorer studeras inom ett par hundra meter. Dessutom visar studien att närhet till våtmarker påverkade dödligheten hos kvinnor, vilket indikerar att våtmarker under denna period ökade exponering för malaria-överförande myggor.

Slutligen undersöker vi i artikel nummer fem hur geografin har påverkat levnadsförhållanden i de fem församlingarna under perioden 1850-1914. Genom att fokusera på kost undersöker vi hur jordtyp har påverkat barnadödligheten på gårdsnivå (via näringsstatus). Studien visar att vissa jordtyper verkar ha påverkat produktiviteten inom jordbruket, vilket i sin tur påverkade näringen för barn i åldrarna 1-15 (vars föräldrar var beroende av jordbruk) och därmed risken för att dö. Denna studie kommer med nya rön om vikten av kost och produktivitet inom jordbruket med avseende på barnadödligheten i det förindustriella Sverige.

Avslutningsvis bidrar denna avhandling med att införa geografiska faktorer på mikronivå i longitudinella historiska studier. Resultaten från avhandlingen ökar vår förståelse för hur geografiska faktorer har påverkat livsförhållanden genom historien. Geokodningen av den demografiska databasen har också visat sig vara en unik och viktig resurs för historisk och geografisk forskning, särskilt eftersom dessa detaljerade data täcker en sådan lång tidsperiod (1813-1914). Förhoppningsvis blir resultatet från denna avhandling en utgångspunkt för ytterligare studier kring spatiala mönster och exponering på mikronivå.
(Less)
Abstract
Historical demographic research is central to understanding past human behaviours and traits, such as fertility, mortality and migration. An essential part of historical demography is conducting longitudinal analyses at the micro-level, which involves the detailed follow-up of individuals over long time periods throughout their lives. By including the geographic context in such analyses, we can study how the environment has affected human living conditions over long time periods. However, the use of micro-level geographic factors in historical longitudinal analyses is seldom feasible because of the absence of data. Thus, studies have been primarily limited to examining the geographic context on an aggregated level.

In five papers,... (More)
Historical demographic research is central to understanding past human behaviours and traits, such as fertility, mortality and migration. An essential part of historical demography is conducting longitudinal analyses at the micro-level, which involves the detailed follow-up of individuals over long time periods throughout their lives. By including the geographic context in such analyses, we can study how the environment has affected human living conditions over long time periods. However, the use of micro-level geographic factors in historical longitudinal analyses is seldom feasible because of the absence of data. Thus, studies have been primarily limited to examining the geographic context on an aggregated level.

In five papers, this thesis contributes to historical demographic research by adding and utilising micro-level geographic factors in longitudinal historical analyses. First, we develop and implement methods for creating detailed longitudinal geographic data that are integrated with longitudinal demographic micro-level data. We then perform novel studies of the effect of the environment on demographic outcomes at the micro-level.

Papers I-III include micro-level geographic factors with longitudinal historical analyses. Paper I contributes to the standardisation of longitudinal demographic data by geographically extending the Intermediate Data Model (IDS) using standardised exchange formats. Paper II presents methods for geocoding longitudinal demographic databases. The core part of the process is to transform geographic objects as snapshots (digitised from historical maps) into longitudinal object-lifeline time representations (with information about the creation, changes and ends of each object). Individuals are subsequently linked to these geographic objects. We geocoded the Scanian Economic Demographic Database (SEDD) from 1813 to 1914. Approximately 53,000 individuals who lived in five rural parishes in southern Sweden are linked to the property units where they lived. Geographic snapshot data (e.g., roads and buildings) are also created. Paper III improves and evaluates the geocoded database, and wetlands in object-lifelines are added.

Paper IV investigates how longitudinal demographic analyses are affected by different geocoding levels and presents methods for quantifying geographic factors. In a novel case study, we use a geocoded database to analyse the effect of population density and proximity to wetlands on the risk of dying for the period 1850-1914. We show that even small differences between the property units and coarser geographic levels and the choice of method for quantifying the geographic factors substantially affected the results of the demographic analyses. Therefore, geocoding to property units is likely needed for fine-scale analyses at distances within a few hundred metres. In addition, proximity to wetlands affected the mortality of women, which may indicate exposure to malaria-transmitting mosquitoes.

Paper V focuses on the role of nutrition in historical societies by analysing the effect of soil type on child mortality in the five parishes between 1850 and 1914. Certain soil types seem to have influenced agricultural productivity, which in turn affected the nutrition of farmers’ children and their risk of dying. This study adds new findings about the importance of nutrition and agricultural productivity regarding child mortality in preindustrial Sweden.

To conclude, this thesis enables the novel inclusion of geographic micro-level factors into historical longitudinal studies. The results increase our understanding about how the micro-level geographic context affected individual living conditions throughout history. The geocoding of the demographic database has also proved to be a unique and important resource for historical and geographic research and a starting point for additional research that includes the micro-level geographic context. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Dibben, Chris, University of Edinburgh
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Geographic micro-level factors, longitudinal historical data, geocoding, historical demography, 19th century, individual level, spatio-temporal analysis, detailed geographic data, geographic context., property units, rural historical soceties, Geographic micro-level factors, longitudinal historical data, geocoding, historical demography, 19th century, individual level, spatio-temporal analysis, detailed geographic data, property units, geographic context
pages
241 pages
publisher
Lund University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
defense location
Geocentre I, lecture hall “Världen”, Sölvegatan 10, Lund
defense date
2016-11-04 10:15
ISBN
978-91-85793-63-1
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
31b31477-c77e-4199-95cb-f92e5a1fe206
date added to LUP
2016-10-03 10:34:32
date last changed
2016-10-10 17:37:57
@misc{31b31477-c77e-4199-95cb-f92e5a1fe206,
  abstract     = {Historical demographic research is central to understanding past human behaviours and traits, such as fertility, mortality and migration. An essential part of historical demography is conducting longitudinal analyses at the micro-level, which involves the detailed follow-up of individuals over long time periods throughout their lives. By including the geographic context in such analyses, we can study how the environment has affected human living conditions over long time periods. However, the use of micro-level geographic factors in historical longitudinal analyses is seldom feasible because of the absence of data. Thus, studies have been primarily limited to examining the geographic context on an aggregated level.<br/><br/>In five papers, this thesis contributes to historical demographic research by adding and utilising micro-level geographic factors in longitudinal historical analyses. First, we develop and implement methods for creating detailed longitudinal geographic data that are integrated with longitudinal demographic micro-level data. We then perform novel studies of the effect of the environment on demographic outcomes at the micro-level.<br/><br/>Papers I-III include micro-level geographic factors with longitudinal historical analyses. Paper I contributes to the standardisation of longitudinal demographic data by geographically extending the Intermediate Data Model (IDS) using standardised exchange formats. Paper II presents methods for geocoding longitudinal demographic databases. The core part of the process is to transform geographic objects as snapshots (digitised from historical maps) into longitudinal object-lifeline time representations (with information about the creation, changes and ends of each object). Individuals are subsequently linked to these geographic objects. We geocoded the Scanian Economic Demographic Database (SEDD) from 1813 to 1914. Approximately 53,000 individuals who lived in five rural parishes in southern Sweden are linked to the property units where they lived. Geographic snapshot data (e.g., roads and buildings) are also created. Paper III improves and evaluates the geocoded database, and wetlands in object-lifelines are added.<br/><br/>Paper IV investigates how longitudinal demographic analyses are affected by different geocoding levels and presents methods for quantifying geographic factors. In a novel case study, we use a geocoded database to analyse the effect of population density and proximity to wetlands on the risk of dying for the period 1850-1914. We show that even small differences between the property units and coarser geographic levels and the choice of method for quantifying the geographic factors substantially affected the results of the demographic analyses. Therefore, geocoding to property units is likely needed for fine-scale analyses at distances within a few hundred metres. In addition, proximity to wetlands affected the mortality of women, which may indicate exposure to malaria-transmitting mosquitoes.<br/><br/>Paper V focuses on the role of nutrition in historical societies by analysing the effect of soil type on child mortality in the five parishes between 1850 and 1914. Certain soil types seem to have influenced agricultural productivity, which in turn affected the nutrition of farmers’ children and their risk of dying. This study adds new findings about the importance of nutrition and agricultural productivity regarding child mortality in preindustrial Sweden.<br/><br/>To conclude, this thesis enables the novel inclusion of geographic micro-level factors into historical longitudinal studies. The results increase our understanding about how the micro-level geographic context affected individual living conditions throughout history. The geocoding of the demographic database has also proved to be a unique and important resource for historical and geographic research and a starting point for additional research that includes the micro-level geographic context.},
  author       = {Hedefalk, Finn},
  isbn         = {978-91-85793-63-1},
  keyword      = {Geographic micro-level factors,longitudinal historical data,geocoding, historical demography,19th century,individual level, spatio-temporal analysis,detailed geographic data,geographic context.,property units,rural historical soceties,Geographic micro-level factors,longitudinal historical data,geocoding,historical demography,19th century,individual level,spatio-temporal analysis,detailed geographic data,property units,geographic context},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {241},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x9e33618)},
  title        = {Life paths through space and time: Adding the micro-level geographic context to longitudinal historical demographic research},
  year         = {2016},
}