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Characterization of CA XV, a new GPI-anchored form of carbonic anhydrase.

Hilvo, Mika; Tolvanen, Martti; Clark, Amy; Shen, Bairong; Shah, Gul N; Waheed, Abdul; Halmi, Piia; Hänninen, Milla; Hämäläinen, Jonna M and Vihinen, Mauno LU , et al. (2005) In The Biochemical journal 392(Pt 1). p.83-92
Abstract
The main function of CAs (carbonic anhydrases) is to participate in the regulation of acid-base balance. Although 12 active isoenzymes of this family had already been described, analyses of genomic databases suggested that there still exists another isoenzyme, CA XV. Sequence analyses were performed to identify those species that are likely to have an active form of this enzyme. Eight species had genomic sequences encoding CA XV, in which all the amino acid residues critical for CA activity are present. However, based on the sequence data, it was apparent that CA XV has become a non-processed pseudogene in humans and chimpanzees. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) confirmed that humans do not express CA XV. In contrast, RT-PCR and in situ... (More)
The main function of CAs (carbonic anhydrases) is to participate in the regulation of acid-base balance. Although 12 active isoenzymes of this family had already been described, analyses of genomic databases suggested that there still exists another isoenzyme, CA XV. Sequence analyses were performed to identify those species that are likely to have an active form of this enzyme. Eight species had genomic sequences encoding CA XV, in which all the amino acid residues critical for CA activity are present. However, based on the sequence data, it was apparent that CA XV has become a non-processed pseudogene in humans and chimpanzees. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) confirmed that humans do not express CA XV. In contrast, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization performed in mice showed positive expression in the kidney, brain and testis. A prediction of the mouse CA XV structure was performed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that mouse CA XV is related to CA IV. Therefore both of these enzymes were expressed in COS-7 cells and studied in parallel experiments. The results showed that CA XV shares several properties with CA IV, i.e. it is a glycosylated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, and it binds CA inhibitor. The catalytic activity of CA XV is low, and the correct formation of disulphide bridges is important for the activity. Both specific and non-specific chaperones increase the production of active enzyme. The results suggest that CA XV is the first member of the alpha-CA gene family that is expressed in several species, but not in humans and chimpanzees. (Less)
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keywords
Carbonic Anhydrases: genetics, Carbonic Anhydrases: metabolism, Carbonic Anhydrases: physiology, Disulfides: metabolism, Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: metabolism, Pan troglodytes: genetics, Pseudogenes: genetics, Recombinant Proteins: genetics, Recombinant Proteins: metabolism
in
The Biochemical journal
volume
392
issue
Pt 1
pages
83 - 92
publisher
Portland Press
external identifiers
  • PMID:16083424
  • Scopus:28044448499
ISSN
1470-8728
DOI
10.1042/BJ20051102
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
fd33bcc4-d54c-4d66-8a85-7a35f29b15c6 (old id 3635394)
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16083424?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2013-06-12 16:19:26
date last changed
2016-11-13 04:29:49
@misc{fd33bcc4-d54c-4d66-8a85-7a35f29b15c6,
  abstract     = {The main function of CAs (carbonic anhydrases) is to participate in the regulation of acid-base balance. Although 12 active isoenzymes of this family had already been described, analyses of genomic databases suggested that there still exists another isoenzyme, CA XV. Sequence analyses were performed to identify those species that are likely to have an active form of this enzyme. Eight species had genomic sequences encoding CA XV, in which all the amino acid residues critical for CA activity are present. However, based on the sequence data, it was apparent that CA XV has become a non-processed pseudogene in humans and chimpanzees. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) confirmed that humans do not express CA XV. In contrast, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization performed in mice showed positive expression in the kidney, brain and testis. A prediction of the mouse CA XV structure was performed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that mouse CA XV is related to CA IV. Therefore both of these enzymes were expressed in COS-7 cells and studied in parallel experiments. The results showed that CA XV shares several properties with CA IV, i.e. it is a glycosylated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, and it binds CA inhibitor. The catalytic activity of CA XV is low, and the correct formation of disulphide bridges is important for the activity. Both specific and non-specific chaperones increase the production of active enzyme. The results suggest that CA XV is the first member of the alpha-CA gene family that is expressed in several species, but not in humans and chimpanzees.},
  author       = {Hilvo, Mika and Tolvanen, Martti and Clark, Amy and Shen, Bairong and Shah, Gul N and Waheed, Abdul and Halmi, Piia and Hänninen, Milla and Hämäläinen, Jonna M and Vihinen, Mauno and Sly, William S and Parkkila, Seppo},
  issn         = {1470-8728},
  keyword      = {Carbonic Anhydrases: genetics,Carbonic Anhydrases: metabolism,Carbonic Anhydrases: physiology,Disulfides: metabolism,Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: metabolism,Pan troglodytes: genetics,Pseudogenes: genetics,Recombinant Proteins: genetics,Recombinant Proteins: metabolism},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {Pt 1},
  pages        = {83--92},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x98c32c0)},
  series       = {The Biochemical journal},
  title        = {Characterization of CA XV, a new GPI-anchored form of carbonic anhydrase.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20051102},
  volume       = {392},
  year         = {2005},
}