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Experimental and Reactor Network Study of Nitrogen Dilution Effects on NOx Formation for Natural Gas and Syngas at Elevated Pressures

Sigfrid, Ivan LU ; Whiddon, Ronald LU ; Collin, Robert LU and Klingmann, Jens LU (2013) ASME Turbo Expo 2013: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition In Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2013, GT2013-94355 Volume 1A: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions.
Abstract
Gas turbines emissions, NOX in particular, have negative impact on the environment. To limit the emissions gas turbine burners are constantly improved. In this work, a fourth generation SIT (Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery) burner is studied to gain information about the formation of NOX emissions. The gas mixtures for the full burner are limited to natural gas with different nitrogen dilutions. The dilutions vary from undiluted to Wobbe index 40 and 30 MJ/m3. In addition to the full burner, the central body (the RPL – Rich/Pilot/Lean) is investigated. Methane is used to characterize standard gas turbine operation, and a non-standard fuel is explored using a generic syngas (67.5 % Hydrogen, 22.5 % Carbon monoxide and 10% Methane). Both... (More)
Gas turbines emissions, NOX in particular, have negative impact on the environment. To limit the emissions gas turbine burners are constantly improved. In this work, a fourth generation SIT (Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery) burner is studied to gain information about the formation of NOX emissions. The gas mixtures for the full burner are limited to natural gas with different nitrogen dilutions. The dilutions vary from undiluted to Wobbe index 40 and 30 MJ/m3. In addition to the full burner, the central body (the RPL – Rich/Pilot/Lean) is investigated. Methane is used to characterize standard gas turbine operation, and a non-standard fuel is explored using a generic syngas (67.5 % Hydrogen, 22.5 % Carbon monoxide and 10% Methane). Both these gases are also investigated after dilution with nitrogen to a Wobbe index of 15 MJ/m3. The experiments are performed in a high-pressure facility. The pressures for the central body burner are 3, 6 and 9 bar. For the full burner the pressures are 3, 4.5 and 6 bar. The combustion air is preheated to 650 K. The emission measurements are sampled with an emission probe at the end of the combustor liner, and analyzed in an emission rack. The results are compared with previous investigations made at atmospheric conditions.

The burner is modeled using a PSR and plug flow network to show which reaction paths are important in the formation of emissions for the burner under the experimental conditions.

The measurement results show that the NOX concentration increases with pressure and flame temperature. With increasing dilution the NOX concentration is decreased. For rich mixtures PSR calculations show that the NOX concentration decreases with pressure. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
keywords
High Pressure, Combustion, Flame, Syngas, hydrogen
in
Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2013, GT2013-94355
editor
Bonzani, Federico
volume
Volume 1A: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions
pages
12 pages
publisher
American Society Of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
conference name
ASME Turbo Expo 2013: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition
external identifiers
  • Other:GT2013-94355
  • Scopus:84890243987
ISBN
978-0-7918-5510-2
DOI
10.1115/GT2013-94355
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
54dfa489-d14b-44a6-96f6-4be6e6ac0645 (old id 3972282)
date added to LUP
2013-08-16 13:45:07
date last changed
2016-10-30 04:38:47
@misc{54dfa489-d14b-44a6-96f6-4be6e6ac0645,
  abstract     = {Gas turbines emissions, NOX in particular, have negative impact on the environment. To limit the emissions gas turbine burners are constantly improved. In this work, a fourth generation SIT (Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery) burner is studied to gain information about the formation of NOX emissions. The gas mixtures for the full burner are limited to natural gas with different nitrogen dilutions. The dilutions vary from undiluted to Wobbe index 40 and 30 MJ/m3. In addition to the full burner, the central body (the RPL – Rich/Pilot/Lean) is investigated. Methane is used to characterize standard gas turbine operation, and a non-standard fuel is explored using a generic syngas (67.5 % Hydrogen, 22.5 % Carbon monoxide and 10% Methane). Both these gases are also investigated after dilution with nitrogen to a Wobbe index of 15 MJ/m3. The experiments are performed in a high-pressure facility. The pressures for the central body burner are 3, 6 and 9 bar. For the full burner the pressures are 3, 4.5 and 6 bar. The combustion air is preheated to 650 K. The emission measurements are sampled with an emission probe at the end of the combustor liner, and analyzed in an emission rack. The results are compared with previous investigations made at atmospheric conditions.<br/><br>
The burner is modeled using a PSR and plug flow network to show which reaction paths are important in the formation of emissions for the burner under the experimental conditions.<br/><br>
The measurement results show that the NOX concentration increases with pressure and flame temperature. With increasing dilution the NOX concentration is decreased. For rich mixtures PSR calculations show that the NOX concentration decreases with pressure.},
  author       = {Sigfrid, Ivan and Whiddon, Ronald and Collin, Robert and Klingmann, Jens},
  editor       = {Bonzani, Federico},
  isbn         = {978-0-7918-5510-2},
  keyword      = {High Pressure,Combustion,Flame,Syngas,hydrogen},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {12},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x7804ce0)},
  series       = {Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2013, GT2013-94355},
  title        = {Experimental and Reactor Network Study of Nitrogen Dilution Effects on NOx Formation for Natural Gas and Syngas at Elevated Pressures},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/GT2013-94355},
  volume       = {Volume 1A: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions},
  year         = {2013},
}