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How visual ergonomics interventions influence health and performance - with an emphasis on non-computer work tasks

Hemphälä, Hillevi LU (2014)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Synergonomiska bedömningar och interventioner genomfördes på icke-dator relaterade arbetsuppgifter vid återvinningsanläggningar, postsorteringsanläggningar och i operationssalar. Resultaten kan i viss mån tillämpas på andra yrken och arbetsplatser.

Syftet med forskningen var att undersöka vilken påverkan synergonomiska interventioner hade vad gällande ögonbesvär, muskuloskeletala besvär, huvudvärk och synförmåga. Intervention utvärderades genom direkta observationer, t.ex. en expertbedömning och genom indirekta observationer med hjälp av frågeformulär. Individer med ögonbesvär rapporterade mer muskuloskeletala besvär än de utan. Faktorer med påverkan på ögon- och muskuloskeletala besvär... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Synergonomiska bedömningar och interventioner genomfördes på icke-dator relaterade arbetsuppgifter vid återvinningsanläggningar, postsorteringsanläggningar och i operationssalar. Resultaten kan i viss mån tillämpas på andra yrken och arbetsplatser.

Syftet med forskningen var att undersöka vilken påverkan synergonomiska interventioner hade vad gällande ögonbesvär, muskuloskeletala besvär, huvudvärk och synförmåga. Intervention utvärderades genom direkta observationer, t.ex. en expertbedömning och genom indirekta observationer med hjälp av frågeformulär. Individer med ögonbesvär rapporterade mer muskuloskeletala besvär än de utan. Faktorer med påverkan på ögon- och muskuloskeletala besvär var den visuella miljön, den visuella förmågan samt behov av glasögon. Resultaten visar att även icke-dator relaterade arbetsuppgifter kan framkalla besvär liknande de som tidigare rapporterats bland datoranvändare.

Utvärderingar av arbetsplatser och interventioner med belysning och glasögon utfördes i de studier som presenteras i denna avhandling. Interventionerna utvärderades genom direkta observationer, t.ex. en expertbedömning och genom indirekta observationer med hjälp av frågeformulär.

För yngre brevbärare innebar bättre belysning en minskning av ögon- och muskuloskeletala besvär. Före interventionen hade individer med ögonbesvär lägre produktivitet än de utan, efter interventionen försvann denna skillnad. För brevbärarna som fått styrkan i sina glasögon korrigerad minskade nackbesvären, särskilt på sidan med statisk muskelbelastning under brevsortering. Det är möjligt att förbättra arbetsställningen för brevbärare med presbyopi (åldersynthet) med anpassade sorteringsglasögon vilka ger en förbättrad arbetsställning med minskad bakåtlutning av huvudet.

God luminanskontrast är viktigt vid visuellt krävande arbete såsom kirurgi. Detta gäller särskilt för operationssköterskor som ser in i mycket starkt operationsljus men som även ska kunna se på lägre upplysta instrumentbord och andra funktioner i operationssalen. Kirurgens visuella fokus är i operationsområdet, och dennes ögon är helt ljusadapterade till den höga belysningsstyrka som finns där. Det kan ta upp till två minuter innan deras syn mörkeradapterat för att fullt ut även se övriga delar av operationssalen. I interventionsstudie påvisades att en ny typ av starkare allmänbelysning minskade luminanskontraster mellan operationssåret och omgivningen särskilt runt operationsbordet. Dessutom ökade operationspersonalens synförmåga i kombination med en minskad trötthet.

Avhandlingen visar att synergonomi är en tvärvetenskaplig disciplin som kräver helhetssyn. Den bidrar förhoppningsvis till att öka medvetenheten om effekterna av en god visuell miljö och dess fördelar för individens hälsa. (Less)
Abstract
Visual ergonomics evaluations and interventions were performed on non-computer work tasks at recycling facilities, post sorting facilities and operating theatres. The results can to some extent be applicable to other professions and workplaces.

The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of visual ergonomics interventions on eyestrain, musculoskeletal discomfort, headache, and visual performance at work.

Individuals with eyestrain reported more musculoskeletal discomfort than individuals without eyestrain. Factors shown to have an impact on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort were the visual environment, the individual’s perceived visual ability and need for spectacles. Such findings have been reported... (More)
Visual ergonomics evaluations and interventions were performed on non-computer work tasks at recycling facilities, post sorting facilities and operating theatres. The results can to some extent be applicable to other professions and workplaces.

The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of visual ergonomics interventions on eyestrain, musculoskeletal discomfort, headache, and visual performance at work.

Individuals with eyestrain reported more musculoskeletal discomfort than individuals without eyestrain. Factors shown to have an impact on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort were the visual environment, the individual’s perceived visual ability and need for spectacles. Such findings have been reported among computer users. The results presented here show that non-computer work tasks may induce similar findings as well.

Evaluations of workplaces and interventions with lighting and spectacles were performed in the studies presented in this thesis. The interventions were evaluated by direct observations such as an expert approach and by indirect observations by means of questionnaires.

After the evaluation and measurement of the lighting at the recycling facilities, a number of lighting recommendations were suggested to increase visibility and reduce accident risks.

For the younger postal workers in particular, better lighting reduced eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. Pre-intervention, the individuals with eyestrain had lower productivity than those without; their productivity increased with better lighting. The musculoskeletal discomfort from the neck decreased especially from the static side for the postal workers after they were provided with correct power in their spectacles. It is possible to improve the work posture of presbyopic postal workers with customised sorting spectacles, in particular because using the sorting spectacles results in a decrease of the backward tilt of the head.

In visually demanding work such as surgery, the luminance contrast within the visual field is essential. This is especially the case for the scrub nurse who has to look into the very bright operating light and also see the less highly lit instrument table and other important aspects in the operating room. The visual focus of the surgeons is in the operating cavity, and their eyes are completely adjusted to that level. It can take up to two minutes before their vision is fully functioning again after being exposed to the high illuminance from the operating cavity. This poses a risk if something happens in the operating room outside the operating cavity that requires good visibility from the surgeon. It is thus vital to increase the general lighting in an operating room, especially around the operating table, to decrease the luminance contrasts and facilitate the operating personnel’s visual ability. In this intervention study, the operating personnel rated the improved lighting as improving their perceived visual ability and a decreasing tiredness.

All together, the studies show that visual ergonomics is a multidisciplinary science that requires a holistic approach. This thesis will hopefully contribute to increasing the awareness of the effects of a good visual environment and its benefits for the individual’s health. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Fostervold, Knut-Inge, Universitet i Oslo, Psykologisk Institutt, Norway
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
light, eye, eyestrain, vision, illuminance, spectacles, glasses, lenses, surgery, postal workers, operating theatres, sorting, post, mail, recycling, recycling facilities
pages
86 pages
defense location
Lecture hall Stora Hörsalen, Ingvar Kamprads Design Center, Sölvegatan 26, Lund University Faculty of Engineering
defense date
2014-02-14 10:15
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
cdd991fa-0ec1-4d25-94af-002c39582c4e (old id 4250125)
date added to LUP
2014-01-20 14:21:31
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:17
@misc{cdd991fa-0ec1-4d25-94af-002c39582c4e,
  abstract     = {Visual ergonomics evaluations and interventions were performed on non-computer work tasks at recycling facilities, post sorting facilities and operating theatres. The results can to some extent be applicable to other professions and workplaces.<br/><br>
The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of visual ergonomics interventions on eyestrain, musculoskeletal discomfort, headache, and visual performance at work.<br/><br>
Individuals with eyestrain reported more musculoskeletal discomfort than individuals without eyestrain. Factors shown to have an impact on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort were the visual environment, the individual’s perceived visual ability and need for spectacles. Such findings have been reported among computer users. The results presented here show that non-computer work tasks may induce similar findings as well. <br/><br>
Evaluations of workplaces and interventions with lighting and spectacles were performed in the studies presented in this thesis. The interventions were evaluated by direct observations such as an expert approach and by indirect observations by means of questionnaires.<br/><br>
After the evaluation and measurement of the lighting at the recycling facilities, a number of lighting recommendations were suggested to increase visibility and reduce accident risks.<br/><br>
For the younger postal workers in particular, better lighting reduced eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. Pre-intervention, the individuals with eyestrain had lower productivity than those without; their productivity increased with better lighting. The musculoskeletal discomfort from the neck decreased especially from the static side for the postal workers after they were provided with correct power in their spectacles. It is possible to improve the work posture of presbyopic postal workers with customised sorting spectacles, in particular because using the sorting spectacles results in a decrease of the backward tilt of the head. <br/><br>
In visually demanding work such as surgery, the luminance contrast within the visual field is essential. This is especially the case for the scrub nurse who has to look into the very bright operating light and also see the less highly lit instrument table and other important aspects in the operating room. The visual focus of the surgeons is in the operating cavity, and their eyes are completely adjusted to that level. It can take up to two minutes before their vision is fully functioning again after being exposed to the high illuminance from the operating cavity. This poses a risk if something happens in the operating room outside the operating cavity that requires good visibility from the surgeon. It is thus vital to increase the general lighting in an operating room, especially around the operating table, to decrease the luminance contrasts and facilitate the operating personnel’s visual ability. In this intervention study, the operating personnel rated the improved lighting as improving their perceived visual ability and a decreasing tiredness.<br/><br>
All together, the studies show that visual ergonomics is a multidisciplinary science that requires a holistic approach. This thesis will hopefully contribute to increasing the awareness of the effects of a good visual environment and its benefits for the individual’s health.},
  author       = {Hemphälä, Hillevi},
  keyword      = {light,eye,eyestrain,vision,illuminance,spectacles,glasses,lenses,surgery,postal workers,operating theatres,sorting,post,mail,recycling,recycling facilities},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {86},
  title        = {How visual ergonomics interventions influence health and performance - with an emphasis on non-computer work tasks},
  year         = {2014},
}