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Electric Traction Machine Design for an E-RWD Unit

Marquez, Francisco LU (2014)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in English

Since the first generation of the Toyota Prius was first introduced in December 1997, the number of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and pure Electric Vehicles (EVs) available in the market has increased substantially, and nowadays almost every car manufacturer has at least one HEV or even EV model within their range. The reason behind this trend relies on the increased concern over the limited availability of fossil fuels together with the now well documented effect of the gases resulting from their combustion onto the atmosphere, which leads to a transition towards alternative renewable energy sources, not least in transport applications.

Electrical machines play an essential role... (More)
Popular Abstract in English

Since the first generation of the Toyota Prius was first introduced in December 1997, the number of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and pure Electric Vehicles (EVs) available in the market has increased substantially, and nowadays almost every car manufacturer has at least one HEV or even EV model within their range. The reason behind this trend relies on the increased concern over the limited availability of fossil fuels together with the now well documented effect of the gases resulting from their combustion onto the atmosphere, which leads to a transition towards alternative renewable energy sources, not least in transport applications.

Electrical machines play an essential role inside electric or hybrid drivelines. As a bidirectional energy converter between electric and mechanical energy, all the power coming either to or from the electric energy source must be converted in the electrical machine. It is then obvious that the performance of the electrical machine has a high impact on the overall traction system, and therefore a thorough machine design is crucial for a successful electric driveline.

This thesis describes in detail the design process of an electric traction machine for a certain HEV application, an Electric Rear Wheel Drive (ERWD) unit. The requirements associated with this particular application are analyzed, and a new design methodology is developed in order to find the optimal electric traction machine for it. As the design work progresses, it becomes more and more apparent that a good thermal design is at least as important as a good electromagnetic design, especially for the application considered. Besides, the thermal and the electromagnetic design tasks are not independent. Conversely, there is actually a high level of interdependence between them, and therefore both need to be solved simultaneously. As opposed to traditional industrial applications, the load profile of an electric traction machine is highly dynamic, depending on the driver's requirements and the external driving conditions. Usually, an optimal machine for this application should be able to operate over the rated power (torque and/or speed) for a significant amount of time, and this is only possible with an outstanding thermal design.

In addition, the thesis also covers several practical aspects related to the manufacturing of electrical machine prototypes and the experimental tests of such in the laboratory. (Less)
Abstract
Since the first generation of the Toyota Prius was introduced in December 1997, the number of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and pure Electric Vehicles (EVs) available in the market has increased substantially. The growing competition existent puts high demands on the electric system as well as the rest of the vehicle. As a consequence, substantial design effort is devoted to optimize both at system and component level, with respect to different parameters such as fuel efficiency, power density, cost and reliability. As bidirectional energy converters between electric and mechanical energy, electrical machines play an essential role inside electric or hybrid drivelines. The performance of the electrical machine has a high impact on the... (More)
Since the first generation of the Toyota Prius was introduced in December 1997, the number of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and pure Electric Vehicles (EVs) available in the market has increased substantially. The growing competition existent puts high demands on the electric system as well as the rest of the vehicle. As a consequence, substantial design effort is devoted to optimize both at system and component level, with respect to different parameters such as fuel efficiency, power density, cost and reliability. As bidirectional energy converters between electric and mechanical energy, electrical machines play an essential role inside electric or hybrid drivelines. The performance of the electrical machine has a high impact on the overall traction system, and therefore a thorough machine design is crucial for a successful electric driveline.

This thesis describes in detail the design process of an electric traction machine for a particular HEV application, an Electric Rear Wheel Drive (E-RWD) unit. The evolution of the design is presented, analyzing the effect of the different driving forces at the different stages. Throughout the thesis it is seen that a modest change on the initial specifications set can lead to a significantly different solution. For this reason, a minimum set of initial specifications is proposed, together with a new design methodology based on the description of the load profile in the form of driving cycles.

The manufacturing of a prototype and the experimental validation of the design are also covered in this work. The proposed traction machine is tested standalone, as well as integrated in the E-RWD unit onboard the vehicle.

From the experience gained both from the design and the experimental testing phases, it appears that the performance of the machine is usually limited by its thermal capabilities. Improving the cooling conditions allows to operate the machine at higher power levels, which has a direct influence on the outcome of the design process. A way to enhance the cooling capabilities for conventional radial flux machines is investigated. Moreover, a machine design with a completely novel cooling concept based on direct cooling of laminated stator windings is presented, and its thermal characteristics are extensively analyzed. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Dr. Ing. Merwerth, Jörg, BMW AG, Germany
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Electric Traction Machines, Permanent Magnet Machines, Laminated Winding Machines, Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Electrical Machine Design, Electromagnetic Modeling, Thermal Modeling, Finite Element Analysis.
pages
165 pages
defense location
Lecture hall M:B, M-building, Ole Römers väg 1, Lund University Faculty of Engineering
defense date
2014-04-03 13:15
ISBN
978-91-88934-64-2
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
dae7e4ce-19c6-4df0-a4ba-2a3c333719ba (old id 4353279)
date added to LUP
2014-03-10 08:18:14
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:19
@misc{dae7e4ce-19c6-4df0-a4ba-2a3c333719ba,
  abstract     = {Since the first generation of the Toyota Prius was introduced in December 1997, the number of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and pure Electric Vehicles (EVs) available in the market has increased substantially. The growing competition existent puts high demands on the electric system as well as the rest of the vehicle. As a consequence, substantial design effort is devoted to optimize both at system and component level, with respect to different parameters such as fuel efficiency, power density, cost and reliability. As bidirectional energy converters between electric and mechanical energy, electrical machines play an essential role inside electric or hybrid drivelines. The performance of the electrical machine has a high impact on the overall traction system, and therefore a thorough machine design is crucial for a successful electric driveline.<br/><br>
This thesis describes in detail the design process of an electric traction machine for a particular HEV application, an Electric Rear Wheel Drive (E-RWD) unit. The evolution of the design is presented, analyzing the effect of the different driving forces at the different stages. Throughout the thesis it is seen that a modest change on the initial specifications set can lead to a significantly different solution. For this reason, a minimum set of initial specifications is proposed, together with a new design methodology based on the description of the load profile in the form of driving cycles.<br/><br>
The manufacturing of a prototype and the experimental validation of the design are also covered in this work. The proposed traction machine is tested standalone, as well as integrated in the E-RWD unit onboard the vehicle.<br/><br>
From the experience gained both from the design and the experimental testing phases, it appears that the performance of the machine is usually limited by its thermal capabilities. Improving the cooling conditions allows to operate the machine at higher power levels, which has a direct influence on the outcome of the design process. A way to enhance the cooling capabilities for conventional radial flux machines is investigated. Moreover, a machine design with a completely novel cooling concept based on direct cooling of laminated stator windings is presented, and its thermal characteristics are extensively analyzed.},
  author       = {Marquez, Francisco},
  isbn         = {978-91-88934-64-2},
  keyword      = {Electric Traction Machines,Permanent Magnet Machines,Laminated Winding Machines,Hybrid Electric Vehicles,Electrical Machine Design,Electromagnetic Modeling,Thermal Modeling,Finite Element Analysis.},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {165},
  title        = {Electric Traction Machine Design for an E-RWD Unit},
  year         = {2014},
}