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Studies of X-Ray Optics And Polarimetry For Synchrotron Radiation

Grizolli, Walan LU (2014)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in English

Among the large variety of experiments performed in science, a common one is to pass a light beam through a sample, the object to be studied, and to study the outcomes of the light-sample interaction. Many light sources have been used for this purpose, like light bulbs and lasers. A modern light source used nowadays is the so-called storage ring. In the storage rings electrons are accelerated and then stored, so that they circulate at a speed close to the speed of light. At these speeds the electrons emit a special kind of light when they travel in a bent path: the synchrotron light. The main property of the synchrotron light is that it is very concentrated (a high flux in a small area) and that... (More)
Popular Abstract in English

Among the large variety of experiments performed in science, a common one is to pass a light beam through a sample, the object to be studied, and to study the outcomes of the light-sample interaction. Many light sources have been used for this purpose, like light bulbs and lasers. A modern light source used nowadays is the so-called storage ring. In the storage rings electrons are accelerated and then stored, so that they circulate at a speed close to the speed of light. At these speeds the electrons emit a special kind of light when they travel in a bent path: the synchrotron light. The main property of the synchrotron light is that it is very concentrated (a high flux in a small area) and that it covers very high energies, from the ultraviolet light (UV) to the X-rays (UV and X-rays are in their nature just like visible light, but with higher energy).



Before reaching the sample under study, the properties of the UV light and of the X-rays must be modified to meet the requirements of the experiments. This is done with optical elements like mirrors, lenses, gratings and crystals. The concept is similar to what is done in experiments with visible light, but UV light and X-rays have some particularities that require operating the optical devices in different manners. For instance, mirrors for X-ray need to operate at very small angles between the light beam and the mirror surface.



This work discusses special solutions using UV and X-ray optics developed for synchrotron light. One of them focuses in an optical design that exploits the high quality of the light sources in MAX~II in order to improve the flexibility of the experiments. The second half of the work describes a device for measuring the polarization of light (one of its properties) that passes through the sample.



Popular Abstract in Swedish

Bland alla olika forskningsexperiment som utförs är ett vanligt sätt att man låter en ljusstråle passera genom ett prov, och sedan studerar man resultaten av denna växelverkan mellan ljus och prov. Många ljuskällor har använts i detta syfte, till exempel glödlampor och laserljus. En modern ljuskälla som används för detta ändamål är de så kallade lagringsringarna. I lagringsringarna accelereras elektroner som sedan lagras, så att de kan cirkulera med en hastighet nära ljusets egen. När elektronerna färdas i dessa hastigheter i en krökt bana avger de en speciell typ av ljus - synkrotronljus. Den viktigaste egenskapen hos synkrotronljuset är att det är mycket koncentrerat (ett högt flöde i ett litet område) och att det täcker mycket höga energier, från ultraviolett ljus (UV) till röntgenstrålning (UV- och röntgenstrålning är till sin natur samma som synligt ljus, men har högre energi).



Innan UV-ljuset eller röntgenstrålningen når provet som skall studeras måste deras egenskaper i de flesta fall ändras för att uppfylla kraven i experimenten. Detta görs med optiska element såsom speglar, linser, gitter och kristaller. Grundtanken liknar det som görs i experiment med synligt ljus, men UV-ljus och röntgenstrålning har vissa egenskaper som ställer speciella krav på de optiska enheterna. Exempelvis måste speglar för röntgenstrålning fungera vid extremt små vinklar mellan ljusstrålen och spegelytan.



Detta arbete behandlar speciallösningar där man använder UV -och röntgenoptik utvecklade för synkrotronljus. En av dessa tekniker är inriktad på en optisk konstruktion som utnyttjar den höga kvaliteten hos MAX II:s ljuskällor för att förbättra flexibiliteten i experimenten. Den andra hälften av arbetet beskriver en anordning för att mäta polarisationen hos ljus (en av ljusets egenskaper), som passerar genom provet. (Less)
Abstract
Synchrotron radiation sources have greatly contributed to the progress in many fields of science. The development of the storage ring technologies have made possible to obtain very low emittance electron beams, which together with the use of undulators allow to guide a very high photon flux into a very small beam size required by the experiments. Development of sources has been accompanied with equally strong progress in beamline optics, improving further the experiments and opening new possibilities in science. This follows from the fact that beamlines have to transport the photon beam from the source to the experiment while conserving the beam quality and the photon flux of the source as good as possible. This work uses basics concepts... (More)
Synchrotron radiation sources have greatly contributed to the progress in many fields of science. The development of the storage ring technologies have made possible to obtain very low emittance electron beams, which together with the use of undulators allow to guide a very high photon flux into a very small beam size required by the experiments. Development of sources has been accompanied with equally strong progress in beamline optics, improving further the experiments and opening new possibilities in science. This follows from the fact that beamlines have to transport the photon beam from the source to the experiment while conserving the beam quality and the photon flux of the source as good as possible. This work uses basics concepts of X-ray optics to develop beamlines and beamline instrumentation. First, a beamline design that uses astigmatism is discussed. This project takes advantage of the low vertical emittance of the MAX~II storage ring to improve the flexibility of soft X-ray beamlines. Secondly a polarimeter is introduced, a device that characterizes the polarization of the light at the experimental station. In this part a novel method is presented for analyzing the polarimeter data. For these studies the source properties, X-ray interaction with matter together with geometrical and wave optics are needed, and these concepts are also presented here. (Less)
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author
supervisor
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
X-ray optics, polarimetry, synchrotron radiation instrumentation.
pages
110 pages
ISBN
978-91-7473-798-1
978-91-7473-797-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
80b875d5-d195-4033-82e1-a0dc40447a02 (old id 4586661)
date added to LUP
2014-08-11 20:00:36
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:18
@misc{80b875d5-d195-4033-82e1-a0dc40447a02,
  abstract     = {Synchrotron radiation sources have greatly contributed to the progress in many fields of science. The development of the storage ring technologies have made possible to obtain very low emittance electron beams, which together with the use of undulators allow to guide a very high photon flux into a very small beam size required by the experiments. Development of sources has been accompanied with equally strong progress in beamline optics, improving further the experiments and opening new possibilities in science. This follows from the fact that beamlines have to transport the photon beam from the source to the experiment while conserving the beam quality and the photon flux of the source as good as possible. This work uses basics concepts of X-ray optics to develop beamlines and beamline instrumentation. First, a beamline design that uses astigmatism is discussed. This project takes advantage of the low vertical emittance of the MAX~II storage ring to improve the flexibility of soft X-ray beamlines. Secondly a polarimeter is introduced, a device that characterizes the polarization of the light at the experimental station. In this part a novel method is presented for analyzing the polarimeter data. For these studies the source properties, X-ray interaction with matter together with geometrical and wave optics are needed, and these concepts are also presented here.},
  author       = {Grizolli, Walan},
  isbn         = {978-91-7473-798-1},
  keyword      = {X-ray optics,polarimetry,synchrotron radiation instrumentation.},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {110},
  title        = {Studies of X-Ray Optics And Polarimetry For Synchrotron Radiation},
  year         = {2014},
}