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Modifying Cooking Practices to Reduce the Formation of Heterocyclic Amines

Hallgard, Elna LU (2004)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Vid tillagning av kött, och framför allt stekning och grillning, bildas mutagena ämnen i stekskorpan. Dessa ämnen benämns heterocykliska aminer. Flera epidemiologiska studier har visat ett samband mellan uppkomsten av cancer och intaget av heterocykliska aminer, medan några studier inte finner något samband. Ämnena har också visat kunna utveckla tumörer och cancer i djurförsök. På grund av detta är det viktigt att minska intaget av heterocykliska aminer. Ett sätt är att minska bildningen under tillagningen av kött. Heterocykliska aminer bildas av kreatin, fria aminosyror och glukos, vattenlösliga ämnen som finns naturligt i kött. Ett tjugotal olika heterocykliska aminer är kända, men försöken i... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Vid tillagning av kött, och framför allt stekning och grillning, bildas mutagena ämnen i stekskorpan. Dessa ämnen benämns heterocykliska aminer. Flera epidemiologiska studier har visat ett samband mellan uppkomsten av cancer och intaget av heterocykliska aminer, medan några studier inte finner något samband. Ämnena har också visat kunna utveckla tumörer och cancer i djurförsök. På grund av detta är det viktigt att minska intaget av heterocykliska aminer. Ett sätt är att minska bildningen under tillagningen av kött. Heterocykliska aminer bildas av kreatin, fria aminosyror och glukos, vattenlösliga ämnen som finns naturligt i kött. Ett tjugotal olika heterocykliska aminer är kända, men försöken i avhandlingen fokuserar på fem av de vanligaste. Avhandlingen redovisar olika faktorer som påverkar bildningen av heterocykliska aminer vid tillagning av kyckling och hamburgare och olika sätt att minska bildningen av heterocykliska aminer, tex val av tillagningsmetod, tid, temperatur, sammansättning på hamburgare och stekfett. Experimenten har varit jämförbara med tillagning i hushåll, restaurang och industri. Vid jämförelse av sju olika tillagningsmetoder för kycklingfiléer, observerades de högsta halterna av heterocykliska aminer i de stekta filéerna. Halterna ökade markant med ökad pann-temperatur. Tillagningstiden hade också ha stor betydelse och längre stektid ledde till högre halter av heterocykliska aminer. Därför är det viktigt att undvika att översteka köttet. Köttets förmåga att hålla vatten under stekning visade sig vara en viktig faktor för bildningen av heterocykliska aminer. Tillsats av salt och polyfosfat till hamburgare minskade viktsförlusten under stekning vilket berodde på ökad vattenbindande förmåga. Halten av heterocykliska aminer minskade också i dessa hamburgare, troligen på grund av en minskad transport av kreatin, fria aminosyror och glukos till stekytan. Tillsats av kolhydrater påverkade också vattenhållningsförmågan samt halten av heterocykliska aminer. Lägst var halten av heterocykliska aminer i de hamburgare som innehöll potatisstärkelse. Hamburgare med olika fetthalt som stektes otinade visade sig innehålla låga halter av heterocykliska aminer. Det fanns en svag tendens att högre fetthalt ledde till minskad bildning av heterocykliska aminer. I experiment där stekning skedde i olika typer av olivolja, visades att en olivolja med hög halt av fenoler kunde minska bildningen av heterocykliska aminer. Den inhiberade verkan avtog efter lagring på grund av att fenolerna bröts ner, men de bibehölls bättre om antioxidanter från rosmarin tillsattes. Analysvärden av heterocykliska aminer i stekta hamburgare anpassades till en matematisk modell, som i en vidareutveckling kan användas för att prediktera bildningen av heterocykliska aminer vid stekning. Kunskap om faktorer som påverkar bildningen av heterocykliska aminer behövs för att kunna ge välgrundande råd till hushåll, restaurang samt industri. Detta skulle kunna minska halterna av heterocykliska aminer i kosten. Kunskapen om halten heterocykliska aminer i olika typer av kött och tillagade på olika sätt kan också användas för att göra uppskattningar av intaget av heterocykliska aminer samt för riskberäkningar. Vidare kan denna information användas i epidemiologiska studier för att undersöka sambandet mellan intag av heterocykliska aminer och förekomst av cancer. (Less)
Abstract
Commonly cooked meat dishes contain heterocyclic amines (HAs) at ng/g levels. HAs are animal carcinogens, form DNA adducts in human tissues, and have been associated with increased risk of cancer in epidemiological studies, and it is thus recommended that human intake be decreased. The aim of this investigation was to find ways of modifying cooking practices to reduce the formation of HAs. Various factors that influence the formation of HAs during cooking of chicken breasts and beefburgers were investigated. The factors studied included cooking method, time, temperature, heat transfer, weight loss during cooking, the chemical composition of beefburgers and antioxidants. The conditions for the cooking experiments were similar to those... (More)
Commonly cooked meat dishes contain heterocyclic amines (HAs) at ng/g levels. HAs are animal carcinogens, form DNA adducts in human tissues, and have been associated with increased risk of cancer in epidemiological studies, and it is thus recommended that human intake be decreased. The aim of this investigation was to find ways of modifying cooking practices to reduce the formation of HAs. Various factors that influence the formation of HAs during cooking of chicken breasts and beefburgers were investigated. The factors studied included cooking method, time, temperature, heat transfer, weight loss during cooking, the chemical composition of beefburgers and antioxidants. The conditions for the cooking experiments were similar to those employed in normal domestic, restaurant and industrial cooking. The analysis of HAs was focused on MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, Harman and Norharman, as these compounds are considered to be the most abundant HAs in cooked meat. The concentrations ranged from undetectable amounts to 30 ng/g. Cooking temperature was shown to be an important factor, especially during frying, since large concentrations of HAs can be formed at high temperatures. Avoiding over-cooking of meat seems to be another important way to decrease the content of HAs. Reducing the weight loss during cooking may be a means of decreasing the formation of HAs, and this correlation is probably due to the transport of water-soluble precursors to the meat surface. This transport can be lowered by the addition of water-holding ingredients, such as common salt or potato starch. Addition of carbohydrates may also affect the formation of HAs chemically. Frying in oil containing antioxidants may also provide a way of reducing the amount of HAs formed, although the amounts of antioxidants and the effect of storage must be taken into consideration. A kinetic model was used to describe the formation of HAs and this can be further developed to predict the formation of HAs. The results from this research can be used to design cooking equipment and processes and to form a basis for guidelines to consumers, restaurants and industry, on how to obtain a product with good sensoric properties and minimised contents of HAs. Such recommendations may decrease the human intake of HAs. The data on HAs in ordinary cooked meat can be compiled into a database for intake estimates, epidemiological studies and for future risk assessment. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Prof. Murkovic, Michael, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Livsmedelsteknik, Food and drink technology, cancer, frying, mutagens, beefburger, chicken, heterocyclic amines, cooking
pages
130 pages
publisher
Division of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University
defense location
Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lecture hall B, Getingevägen 60, Lund Institute of Technology
defense date
2004-05-06 10:30
ISBN
91-7422-050-0
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
463ddd83-4c21-403c-bbe3-330534e47cd8 (old id 466984)
date added to LUP
2007-10-13 14:59:16
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:14
@misc{463ddd83-4c21-403c-bbe3-330534e47cd8,
  abstract     = {Commonly cooked meat dishes contain heterocyclic amines (HAs) at ng/g levels. HAs are animal carcinogens, form DNA adducts in human tissues, and have been associated with increased risk of cancer in epidemiological studies, and it is thus recommended that human intake be decreased. The aim of this investigation was to find ways of modifying cooking practices to reduce the formation of HAs. Various factors that influence the formation of HAs during cooking of chicken breasts and beefburgers were investigated. The factors studied included cooking method, time, temperature, heat transfer, weight loss during cooking, the chemical composition of beefburgers and antioxidants. The conditions for the cooking experiments were similar to those employed in normal domestic, restaurant and industrial cooking. The analysis of HAs was focused on MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, Harman and Norharman, as these compounds are considered to be the most abundant HAs in cooked meat. The concentrations ranged from undetectable amounts to 30 ng/g. Cooking temperature was shown to be an important factor, especially during frying, since large concentrations of HAs can be formed at high temperatures. Avoiding over-cooking of meat seems to be another important way to decrease the content of HAs. Reducing the weight loss during cooking may be a means of decreasing the formation of HAs, and this correlation is probably due to the transport of water-soluble precursors to the meat surface. This transport can be lowered by the addition of water-holding ingredients, such as common salt or potato starch. Addition of carbohydrates may also affect the formation of HAs chemically. Frying in oil containing antioxidants may also provide a way of reducing the amount of HAs formed, although the amounts of antioxidants and the effect of storage must be taken into consideration. A kinetic model was used to describe the formation of HAs and this can be further developed to predict the formation of HAs. The results from this research can be used to design cooking equipment and processes and to form a basis for guidelines to consumers, restaurants and industry, on how to obtain a product with good sensoric properties and minimised contents of HAs. Such recommendations may decrease the human intake of HAs. The data on HAs in ordinary cooked meat can be compiled into a database for intake estimates, epidemiological studies and for future risk assessment.},
  author       = {Hallgard, Elna},
  isbn         = {91-7422-050-0},
  keyword      = {Livsmedelsteknik,Food and drink technology,cancer,frying,mutagens,beefburger,chicken,heterocyclic amines,cooking},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {130},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x92854a0)},
  title        = {Modifying Cooking Practices to Reduce the Formation of Heterocyclic Amines},
  year         = {2004},
}