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The Challenges of Analyzing the Molecular Properties of Starch

Pérez, Daysi LU (2014)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in English

The Andean region and the Amazon Basin of South America have been identified as regions of origin and the domestication of many plants. Some of the food crops from these regions such as potato and cassava, have gained global import¬ance, while the majority of food crops are hardly know outside their present area of cultivation.

In the first part of this study, underutilized Andean starches from canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), maca (Lepidium meyenii), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), achira/Indian shot (Canna indica), and Lowland starches from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and gualuza/tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) were investigated, in the hope that... (More)
Popular Abstract in English

The Andean region and the Amazon Basin of South America have been identified as regions of origin and the domestication of many plants. Some of the food crops from these regions such as potato and cassava, have gained global import¬ance, while the majority of food crops are hardly know outside their present area of cultivation.

In the first part of this study, underutilized Andean starches from canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), maca (Lepidium meyenii), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), achira/Indian shot (Canna indica), and Lowland starches from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and gualuza/tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) were investigated, in the hope that studying and evaluating their properties would contribute to increasing interest in their utilization.

Granule diameter, and gelatinization and pasting properties were some of the physicochemical properties that were studied in the Andean grains and root starches. The pasting properties (cooking properties) are of great interest, particularly for applications of starch in food processing. Since starches can also be utilized raw (in their native granular form), in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of C. indica, M. esculenta and X. sagittifolium starch was also performed. Such studies can be of particular interest in animal feed.

One of the most important properties of starch is its molecular size, as this can affect the viscosity, gelatinization and pasting properties, among others. Our current understanding of how the molecular size affects these properties (end-use properties) is, however, limited, partially due to the lack of reproducible methods of quantifying the molecular size.

In the second part of this study methods for obtaining molecular dissolution of the starch granules were investigated. Two optimum dissolution methods for the starch polymers were found, one involves the use of autoclave heating at 140°C and the other involves the use of DMSO at 100°C. (Less)
Abstract
Both the nutritional and functional properties of starch are directly influenced by the molecular structure of its polymers: amylose and amylopectin. It is therefore important to have reproducible methods for quantifying the molecular size.

In the first part of the thesis, the composition, crystallinity, degree of branching, morphological, thermal and pasting properties, and susceptibility of the granules to enzymatic hydrolysis of starches from Lepidium meyenii, Chenopodium quinoa, Chenopodium pallidicaule, Amaranthus caudatus and Canna indica, Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Manihot esculenta, grown in Bolivia, were investigated. The physicochemical properties of the starches varied depending on its botanical source. Some starches... (More)
Both the nutritional and functional properties of starch are directly influenced by the molecular structure of its polymers: amylose and amylopectin. It is therefore important to have reproducible methods for quantifying the molecular size.

In the first part of the thesis, the composition, crystallinity, degree of branching, morphological, thermal and pasting properties, and susceptibility of the granules to enzymatic hydrolysis of starches from Lepidium meyenii, Chenopodium quinoa, Chenopodium pallidicaule, Amaranthus caudatus and Canna indica, Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Manihot esculenta, grown in Bolivia, were investigated. The physicochemical properties of the starches varied depending on its botanical source. Some starches exhibited very unusual properties.

The second part of this study deals with the development and evaluation of starch dissolution methods allowing reliable measurements of the size distributions of starch polymers using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and refractive index detection (AF4-MALS-dRI). Three of the most common methods for starch dissolution were investigated, i.e. dissolution in water at high temperatures (120°C – 200°C) using autoclaving or microwaving heating, and dissolution in DMSO at 100°C. The results showed that autoclaving aqueous solutions at 140°C and dissolution in DMSO at 100°C were suitable methods for dissolving amylopectin, whereas dissolution in DMSO was the optimum method for dissolving amylose. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Dr Vilaplana, Francisco, Division of Glycoscience, School of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Centre, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Amaranthus caudatus, Chenopodium quinoa, Chenopodium pallidicaule, Canna indica, Lepidium meyenii, Xanthosoma sagittifolium, Manihot esculenta, starch, amylose, amylopectin, field-flow fractionation, size distribution, dissolution
categories
Higher Education
pages
128 pages
publisher
Lund University (Media-Tryck)
defense location
Lecture hall KC:D, Kemicentrum, Getingevägen 60, Lund University, Faculty of Engineering, LTH
defense date
2014-12-10 10:15
ISBN
978-91-7422-377-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
40612cee-8d24-45a1-b379-2365c375db9c (old id 4778590)
date added to LUP
2014-11-14 12:14:23
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:12
@misc{40612cee-8d24-45a1-b379-2365c375db9c,
  abstract     = {Both the nutritional and functional properties of starch are directly influenced by the molecular structure of its polymers: amylose and amylopectin. It is therefore important to have reproducible methods for quantifying the molecular size. <br/><br>
In the first part of the thesis, the composition, crystallinity, degree of branching, morphological, thermal and pasting properties, and susceptibility of the granules to enzymatic hydrolysis of starches from Lepidium meyenii, Chenopodium quinoa, Chenopodium pallidicaule, Amaranthus caudatus and Canna indica, Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Manihot esculenta, grown in Bolivia, were investigated. The physicochemical properties of the starches varied depending on its botanical source. Some starches exhibited very unusual properties.<br/><br>
The second part of this study deals with the development and evaluation of starch dissolution methods allowing reliable measurements of the size distributions of starch polymers using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and refractive index detection (AF4-MALS-dRI). Three of the most common methods for starch dissolution were investigated, i.e. dissolution in water at high temperatures (120°C – 200°C) using autoclaving or microwaving heating, and dissolution in DMSO at 100°C. The results showed that autoclaving aqueous solutions at 140°C and dissolution in DMSO at 100°C were suitable methods for dissolving amylopectin, whereas dissolution in DMSO was the optimum method for dissolving amylose.},
  author       = {Pérez, Daysi},
  isbn         = {978-91-7422-377-4},
  keyword      = {Amaranthus caudatus,Chenopodium quinoa,Chenopodium pallidicaule,Canna indica,Lepidium meyenii,Xanthosoma sagittifolium,Manihot esculenta,starch,amylose,amylopectin,field-flow fractionation,size distribution,dissolution},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {128},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x7b8c8b8)},
  title        = {The Challenges of Analyzing the Molecular Properties of Starch},
  year         = {2014},
}