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Assessment of the risk of heat disorders encountered during work in hot conditions

Malchaire, J; Kampmann, B; Mehnert, P; Gebhardt, H; Piette, A; Havenith, G; Holmér, Ingvar LU ; Parsons, K; Alfano, G and Griefahn, B (2002) In International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 75(3). p.153-162
Abstract
Objective: To co-ordinate the work of the main European research teams in the field of thermal factors in order to develop and improve significantly the methods presently available for assessing the risks of heat disorders encountered during work in hot conditions. Method: Each item from the required sweat rate model was reviewed on the basis of the most recent literature. A database with 1,113 laboratory and field experiments, covering the whole range of hot working conditions, was assembled and used for the validation. Results: Influence of clothing ensemble on heat exchange: methods and formulas were developed that take into account the dynamic effects associated with forced convection and the pumping effect associated with body... (More)
Objective: To co-ordinate the work of the main European research teams in the field of thermal factors in order to develop and improve significantly the methods presently available for assessing the risks of heat disorders encountered during work in hot conditions. Method: Each item from the required sweat rate model was reviewed on the basis of the most recent literature. A database with 1,113 laboratory and field experiments, covering the whole range of hot working conditions, was assembled and used for the validation. Results: Influence of clothing ensemble on heat exchange: methods and formulas were developed that take into account the dynamic effects associated with forced convection and the pumping effect associated with body movements and exercise. Prediction of the average skin temperature: the model used in the required sweat rate standard ISO 7933 was extended to cover more severe conditions with high radiation and high humidity and different clothing and take into account the rectal temperature for the prediction of the skin temperature. Criteria for estimating acceptable exposure times in hot work environments, criteria were reviewed and updated concerning the maximum increase in core temperature and the acceptable water loss, for acclimatised and non-acclimatised subjects. These limits are intended to protect 95% of the population. Measuring strategy: a strategy was developed to assess the risks in any working situation with varying conditions of climate, metabolic rate or clothing. A detailed methodology was developed in three stages: an observation method for the recognition of the conditions that might lead to thermal stress; an analysis method for evaluating the problem and optimising the solutions; and an expert method for in-depth analysis of the working situation when needed. Validation: the different results were used to prepare a revision of the interpretation procedure proposed in the ISO standard 7933. We validated the modified approaches using the database. This involved the whole range of conditions for which the model was extended, namely conditions with high and low radiation, humidity and air velocity as well as fluctuating conditions. Based on these results, the predicted heat strain model was developed: it is presently proposed as an ISO and CEN standard. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
volume
75
issue
3
pages
153 - 162
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • Scopus:0036523915
ISSN
1432-1246
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
5800612d-caac-4ad9-9985-86a196422914 (old id 708964)
alternative location
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=13481648
date added to LUP
2008-09-26 15:52:20
date last changed
2016-10-13 04:33:55
@misc{5800612d-caac-4ad9-9985-86a196422914,
  abstract     = {Objective: To co-ordinate the work of the main European research teams in the field of thermal factors in order to develop and improve significantly the methods presently available for assessing the risks of heat disorders encountered during work in hot conditions. Method: Each item from the required sweat rate model was reviewed on the basis of the most recent literature. A database with 1,113 laboratory and field experiments, covering the whole range of hot working conditions, was assembled and used for the validation. Results: Influence of clothing ensemble on heat exchange: methods and formulas were developed that take into account the dynamic effects associated with forced convection and the pumping effect associated with body movements and exercise. Prediction of the average skin temperature: the model used in the required sweat rate standard ISO 7933 was extended to cover more severe conditions with high radiation and high humidity and different clothing and take into account the rectal temperature for the prediction of the skin temperature. Criteria for estimating acceptable exposure times in hot work environments, criteria were reviewed and updated concerning the maximum increase in core temperature and the acceptable water loss, for acclimatised and non-acclimatised subjects. These limits are intended to protect 95% of the population. Measuring strategy: a strategy was developed to assess the risks in any working situation with varying conditions of climate, metabolic rate or clothing. A detailed methodology was developed in three stages: an observation method for the recognition of the conditions that might lead to thermal stress; an analysis method for evaluating the problem and optimising the solutions; and an expert method for in-depth analysis of the working situation when needed. Validation: the different results were used to prepare a revision of the interpretation procedure proposed in the ISO standard 7933. We validated the modified approaches using the database. This involved the whole range of conditions for which the model was extended, namely conditions with high and low radiation, humidity and air velocity as well as fluctuating conditions. Based on these results, the predicted heat strain model was developed: it is presently proposed as an ISO and CEN standard.},
  author       = {Malchaire, J and Kampmann, B and Mehnert, P and Gebhardt, H and Piette, A and Havenith, G and Holmér, Ingvar and Parsons, K and Alfano, G and Griefahn, B},
  issn         = {1432-1246},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {153--162},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x84e72d8)},
  series       = {International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health},
  title        = {Assessment of the risk of heat disorders encountered during work in hot conditions},
  volume       = {75},
  year         = {2002},
}