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Exploring car manufacturers' responses to technology-forcing regulation : The case of California's ZEV mandate

Wesseling, J. H. LU ; Farla, J. C M and Hekkert, M. P. (2015) In Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 16. p.87-105
Abstract

The ability of firms to influence environmental regulation has largely been overlooked in transition studies. We study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation. We apply a conceptual framework on corporate responses to public innovation policy to the case of the zero emission vehicle mandate over the period 1990-2013. We use patent and sales data to operationalize the R&D and commercialization aspects of innovation strategies, while using corporate political activities data to operationalize political influence strategies. We find that first, car manufacturers used specific combinations of innovation and political influence strategies,... (More)

The ability of firms to influence environmental regulation has largely been overlooked in transition studies. We study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation. We apply a conceptual framework on corporate responses to public innovation policy to the case of the zero emission vehicle mandate over the period 1990-2013. We use patent and sales data to operationalize the R&D and commercialization aspects of innovation strategies, while using corporate political activities data to operationalize political influence strategies. We find that first, car manufacturers used specific combinations of innovation and political influence strategies, depending on their value maintaining or value creating nature. Second, manufacturers changed their strategies and became more value creating over time, which supported socio-technical change. Third, we refine the available strategy typology by identifying subclasses in defensive (opposition and slowdown) and proactive strategies (shaping, support and progressive).

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
keywords
Electric vehicle, Incumbent, Innovation strategy, Political strategy, Zero emission vehicle
in
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions
volume
16
pages
19 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • Scopus:84941180178
ISSN
2210-4224
DOI
10.1016/j.eist.2015.03.001
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
c7ca727b-8b9c-4bea-9364-0527ea837059
date added to LUP
2016-05-18 13:21:51
date last changed
2016-11-14 11:58:12
@misc{c7ca727b-8b9c-4bea-9364-0527ea837059,
  abstract     = {<p>The ability of firms to influence environmental regulation has largely been overlooked in transition studies. We study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation. We apply a conceptual framework on corporate responses to public innovation policy to the case of the zero emission vehicle mandate over the period 1990-2013. We use patent and sales data to operationalize the R&amp;D and commercialization aspects of innovation strategies, while using corporate political activities data to operationalize political influence strategies. We find that first, car manufacturers used specific combinations of innovation and political influence strategies, depending on their value maintaining or value creating nature. Second, manufacturers changed their strategies and became more value creating over time, which supported socio-technical change. Third, we refine the available strategy typology by identifying subclasses in defensive (opposition and slowdown) and proactive strategies (shaping, support and progressive).</p>},
  author       = {Wesseling, J. H. and Farla, J. C M and Hekkert, M. P.},
  issn         = {2210-4224},
  keyword      = {Electric vehicle,Incumbent,Innovation strategy,Political strategy,Zero emission vehicle},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {09},
  pages        = {87--105},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x99f0458)},
  series       = {Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions},
  title        = {Exploring car manufacturers' responses to technology-forcing regulation : The case of California's ZEV mandate},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2015.03.001},
  volume       = {16},
  year         = {2015},
}