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Skånska småvatten nu och då : jämförelse mellan 1940, 1980 och 2000-talet

Andersson, Jonny (2004) In Lunds universitets Naturgeografiska institution - Seminarieuppsatser
Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
Abstract (Swedish)
Populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning: Småvatten i form av dammar och våtmarker har en viktig funktion i både den terrestra
och akvatiska miljön. De fungerar till exempel som buffert för näringsämnen från att
flöda ut i havet och dem ökar den biologiska mångfalden bland växter och djur.
De flesta antropogena småvattnen har sitt ursprung från 1800-talet och 1900-talets
början, då näringsrik märgellera grävdes upp från åkrar och hålen på åkrar fylldes upp
med nederbörd. I samband med jordbrukets effektivisering så jämnades många av
dessa märgelhålor och antalet småvetten minskade avsevärt. Sedan mitten på 1980-
talet har småvatten och våtmarker uppmärksammats i en rad olika miljöprojekt i
Skåne.
Syftet med denna magister uppsats i... (More)
Populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning: Småvatten i form av dammar och våtmarker har en viktig funktion i både den terrestra
och akvatiska miljön. De fungerar till exempel som buffert för näringsämnen från att
flöda ut i havet och dem ökar den biologiska mångfalden bland växter och djur.
De flesta antropogena småvattnen har sitt ursprung från 1800-talet och 1900-talets
början, då näringsrik märgellera grävdes upp från åkrar och hålen på åkrar fylldes upp
med nederbörd. I samband med jordbrukets effektivisering så jämnades många av
dessa märgelhålor och antalet småvetten minskade avsevärt. Sedan mitten på 1980-
talet har småvatten och våtmarker uppmärksammats i en rad olika miljöprojekt i
Skåne.
Syftet med denna magister uppsats i ämnet Naturgeografi är att uppskatta samt att i ett
längre perspektiv få reda på hur dessa småvatten förändringar skett de senaste 60 åren
och vilka effekter det haft för omgivningen. Metoden som användes var fjärranalys i
kombination med fältbesök samt skärmdigitalisering i ett GIS. Programvara och
material bestod av ESRIs ArcGIS och flygfotografier från 1940, 1980 och 2000-talet.
Basen för studien är 30 stycken 5*5 kilometers rutor slumpmässigt fördelade i Skåne.
Analysen innebar att uppskatta antalet och totala arean småvatten i varje ruta. En
indelning av skog och åker region gjordes för att studera regionsskillnader. En
klassificering av omkringliggande marktyp utfördes för att se i vilken marktyp som
främsta förändringarna skett samt i vilken storleksklass dessa förändringar inträffat.
Resultatet visar att antalet minskat från 2529 stycken småvatten till 1143 stycken
mellan 1940 och 1980-talet i dessa trettio rutor. Det har dock skett en liten ökning
från 1143 till 1400 stycken mellan 1980 och 2000-talet. Totala arean småvatten har
inte förändrats märkbart. Det har däremot skett en stor förändring av antalet i
storleksklassen mellan 0-1 hektar. De flesta av dessa småvatten låg på åker och i
våtmarksområden på 1940-talet till att idag ligga främst på gräsmark. Dessa
förändringar har haft en stor inverkan på landskapsbilden, biologiska mångfalden och
kvävereningen då landskapet blivit fattigare, många växter och djurs habitat har
minskat och fler näringsämnen flödar ut i havet.
Detta projekt har skapat en bas där djupare studier om kvävereningen i våtmarker och
småvatten kan genomföras. Data kan även användas i en närmare studier för specifika
avrinningsområden och genom detta försöka beräkna kvävereningen. Det ges även
möjligheter att utföra studier för biologisk mångfald. (Less)
Abstract
Small water bodies in the shape of ponds and wetlands have an important function in
both the terrestrial and the aquatic environment. They serve as a buffer to prevent rash
out-flow of nutrients into the oceans and they maintain biological diversity for plants
and animals.
Most anthropogenic small waters originated in the 19th century and beginning of 20th
century. During this time, good fertilizing soil was removed from the land and
remaining cavities were filled with water. When farming was made more effective the
ground was leveled and these small waters vanished. Since mid 1980 the importance
of small water bodies and wetlands has received attention in a variety of
environmental projects.
The purpose of this masters thesis... (More)
Small water bodies in the shape of ponds and wetlands have an important function in
both the terrestrial and the aquatic environment. They serve as a buffer to prevent rash
out-flow of nutrients into the oceans and they maintain biological diversity for plants
and animals.
Most anthropogenic small waters originated in the 19th century and beginning of 20th
century. During this time, good fertilizing soil was removed from the land and
remaining cavities were filled with water. When farming was made more effective the
ground was leveled and these small waters vanished. Since mid 1980 the importance
of small water bodies and wetlands has received attention in a variety of
environmental projects.
The purpose of this masters thesis paper is to estimate the change of small water
bodies during the last 60 years its effects. The methodology we used was; (1) initial
remote sensing, (2) field-visits, (3) GIS onscreen digitizing and (4) GIS analysis. The
main software and materials used were ESRI’s ArcGIS and aerial photos from 1940’s,
1980’s and 2000’s. A randomized selection of thirty 5*5 kilometers in Skåne was the
base for the study. In these thirty squares the inventory and analysis included; (1)
estimation of the total number of small waters and their total accumulated area, (2) a
comparison of total number and total area of water in forest and farmland based on
land use in each square, (3) classification of small waters into seven area classes (4)
studies of what actual land use (farmland, grassland, coniferous, deciduous, urban
areas, clear cut forest and wetlands) has seen change in small water.
The results show that the number of small waters has decreased between the 1940’s
and the 1980’s from 2529 to 1143. There has been an increase between the 1980’s and
2000’s from 1143 to 1400. The total area of small water bodies however is in fact
more in the 2000’s than it was in the 1940’s. The small waters that have vanished are
mainly in the range of 0-1 hectares. Many of these that have disappeared were
situated in farmland and wetlands during the 1940’s. On the other hand, waters in
grassland increased in the 2000’s. These changes in waters have made a great impact
on the landscape, biological diversity and nitrogen retention on land. The environment
has become sparse, a variety of plants and animal species have decreased and more
nutrients flow out to the ocean.
This masters thesis has provided a basis for more in depth studies of nitrogen
retention in wetlands and small water bodies. With this data one can go deeper into a
certain watershed and try to estimate its nitrogen retention based on additional inputs.
One could also try to estimate how many water bodies there is in a certain watershed
and use that for further studies. This database could also be used in studies such as
biological diversity changes. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Andersson, Jonny
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Scanian small water bodies today and in the past : a comparison between 1940’s, 1980’s and 2000’s
year
type
H1 - Master's Degree (One Year)
subject
keywords
cartography, pedology, remote sensing, ponds, southern Sweden, wetlands, biological diversity, nutrients, damm, våtmark, näringsämnen, biologisk mångfald, geomorphology, physical geography, climatology, naturgeografi, geomorfologi, marklära, kartografi, klimatologi
publication/series
Lunds universitets Naturgeografiska institution - Seminarieuppsatser
report number
110
language
Swedish
id
1331264
date added to LUP
2005-12-05
date last changed
2011-12-12 17:18:48
@misc{1331264,
  abstract     = {Small water bodies in the shape of ponds and wetlands have an important function in
both the terrestrial and the aquatic environment. They serve as a buffer to prevent rash
out-flow of nutrients into the oceans and they maintain biological diversity for plants
and animals.
Most anthropogenic small waters originated in the 19th century and beginning of 20th
century. During this time, good fertilizing soil was removed from the land and
remaining cavities were filled with water. When farming was made more effective the
ground was leveled and these small waters vanished. Since mid 1980 the importance
of small water bodies and wetlands has received attention in a variety of
environmental projects.
The purpose of this masters thesis paper is to estimate the change of small water
bodies during the last 60 years its effects. The methodology we used was; (1) initial
remote sensing, (2) field-visits, (3) GIS onscreen digitizing and (4) GIS analysis. The
main software and materials used were ESRI’s ArcGIS and aerial photos from 1940’s,
1980’s and 2000’s. A randomized selection of thirty 5*5 kilometers in Skåne was the
base for the study. In these thirty squares the inventory and analysis included; (1)
estimation of the total number of small waters and their total accumulated area, (2) a
comparison of total number and total area of water in forest and farmland based on
land use in each square, (3) classification of small waters into seven area classes (4)
studies of what actual land use (farmland, grassland, coniferous, deciduous, urban
areas, clear cut forest and wetlands) has seen change in small water.
The results show that the number of small waters has decreased between the 1940’s
and the 1980’s from 2529 to 1143. There has been an increase between the 1980’s and
2000’s from 1143 to 1400. The total area of small water bodies however is in fact
more in the 2000’s than it was in the 1940’s. The small waters that have vanished are
mainly in the range of 0-1 hectares. Many of these that have disappeared were
situated in farmland and wetlands during the 1940’s. On the other hand, waters in
grassland increased in the 2000’s. These changes in waters have made a great impact
on the landscape, biological diversity and nitrogen retention on land. The environment
has become sparse, a variety of plants and animal species have decreased and more
nutrients flow out to the ocean.
This masters thesis has provided a basis for more in depth studies of nitrogen
retention in wetlands and small water bodies. With this data one can go deeper into a
certain watershed and try to estimate its nitrogen retention based on additional inputs.
One could also try to estimate how many water bodies there is in a certain watershed
and use that for further studies. This database could also be used in studies such as
biological diversity changes.},
  author       = {Andersson, Jonny},
  keyword      = {cartography,pedology,remote sensing,ponds,southern Sweden,wetlands,biological diversity,nutrients,damm,våtmark,näringsämnen,biologisk mångfald,geomorphology,physical geography,climatology,naturgeografi,geomorfologi,marklära,kartografi,klimatologi},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Lunds universitets Naturgeografiska institution - Seminarieuppsatser},
  title        = {Skånska småvatten nu och då : jämförelse mellan 1940, 1980 och 2000-talet},
  year         = {2004},
}