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Vem ska trösta Knyttet...och vem ska Knyttet stämma?!

Bennet Fredriksson, Josefin LU (2010) JURM01 20092
Department of Law
Abstract
‘Bullying’ as a term first appeared in Sweden in the 1960s, and was not considered being a social problem until the 1980s. The perhaps most widespread definition of the term bullying is defined by the Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus: "A person is bullied when he or she has, repeatedly and over time become a victim of negative actions from one or more persons (...) the action shall be made with an intention to harm and, to be classed as bullying, must be performed repeatedly over time."

In 2003 an investigation was appointed eventually resulting in the 2006 Act Against Discrimination And Other Degrading Treatment (Lag mot diskriminering och annan kränkande behandling). This was something that was considered as an urgent task from a... (More)
‘Bullying’ as a term first appeared in Sweden in the 1960s, and was not considered being a social problem until the 1980s. The perhaps most widespread definition of the term bullying is defined by the Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus: "A person is bullied when he or she has, repeatedly and over time become a victim of negative actions from one or more persons (...) the action shall be made with an intention to harm and, to be classed as bullying, must be performed repeatedly over time."

In 2003 an investigation was appointed eventually resulting in the 2006 Act Against Discrimination And Other Degrading Treatment (Lag mot diskriminering och annan kränkande behandling). This was something that was considered as an urgent task from a political point of view. This was to comply with the UNCRC (Convention on the Rights of the Child), as well as with an EU directive on equal treatment.

Before 2006 Act Against Discrimination And Other Degrading Treatment came into effect, the abusive behavior that frequently seemed to appear in schools was supposedly governed by a variety of laws, including laws regulating safety in labour environments, the Education Act (Skollagen) and the Law of Damages (Skadeståndslagen). Swedish laws and regulations had for long been lacking a direct and clear regulation on how bullying in schools was supposed to be handled. The rules in 2006 Act Against Discrimination And Other Degrading Treatment on bullying, was January 1, 2009 transferred to the Education Act Chapter 14a, while the part relating to discrimination was transferred to the new Discrimination Act. One of the key changes when transferring the regulation to the Education Act was strengthening child's position through broadening the school's duty of investigation of an alleged problem.

Rules on bullying enact the school principal liability to the children and students as part of his duty. The general activities covered by the new rules are the activities that are regulated by the Education Act. It makes no difference whether the school is controlled by the state, municipal or private. Legislative provisions are mandatory, implying that it is not possible to conclude an agreement that otherwise apply to some general activities. The aim is to force regulatory compliance through a variety of obligations. Compensation arises if the school fails to meet the obligations stated in the Act.

The municipality with liability for the school and the people representing it, such as the head master among others, has a duty to act preventively as to investigate incidents of degrading treatment, and to establish an annual plan that is expected to contain measures.

When 2006 Act Against Discrimination And Other Degrading Treatment came into effect in 2006, the Authority for children and student representative for equal treatment (Barn- och Elevombudsmannen) was established. It was created as an authority for children and young students to turn to for help. The amounts that can arise as a compensation for the bullying is a compensation for the degrading treatment. This is a very complex concept in tort law. Degrading treatment is a not clearly measurable damage, and this may pose difficulties in calculating damages and adequate causality.

The subject of bullying still lack clear guiding practice from the courts, since the majority of cases has been determined by the conciliation process between the parties, but an increasing number of cases are now brought into courts as municipalities have been said to be fed up with paying high amounts of money without getting their responsibilities legally tested. Seen from a judicial perspective, this is a positive development as further court decisions will help to clarify the legal situation. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Mobbning som begrepp dök upp först på 1960-talet och uppmärksammades inte som ett samhällsproblem förrän på 1980-talet. Den definition av begreppet mobbning som kanske är det mest spridda, är definitionen som forskaren Dan Olweus använder: ” En person är mobbad när hon eller han, upprepade gånger och under en viss tid blir utsatt för negativa handlingar från en eller flera personer(…)handlingarna skall utföras med en intention att skada och för att klassas som mobbning skall det ske upprepade gånger under en viss tid.”

År 2003 tillsattes en utredning som utmynnade i 2006 års Lag mot diskriminering och annan kränkande behandling. Detta var något som man ansåg angeläget ur samhällssynpunkt dels för att efterleva FN:s Barnkonvention som... (More)
Mobbning som begrepp dök upp först på 1960-talet och uppmärksammades inte som ett samhällsproblem förrän på 1980-talet. Den definition av begreppet mobbning som kanske är det mest spridda, är definitionen som forskaren Dan Olweus använder: ” En person är mobbad när hon eller han, upprepade gånger och under en viss tid blir utsatt för negativa handlingar från en eller flera personer(…)handlingarna skall utföras med en intention att skada och för att klassas som mobbning skall det ske upprepade gånger under en viss tid.”

År 2003 tillsattes en utredning som utmynnade i 2006 års Lag mot diskriminering och annan kränkande behandling. Detta var något som man ansåg angeläget ur samhällssynpunkt dels för att efterleva FN:s Barnkonvention som Sverige ratificerat men också för att ett EG-direktiv rörande likabehandling i olika förhållanden behövde genomföras och denna lag var tänkt att uppfylla dessa.

Innan BeL:s tillkomst har kränkande behandling i skolan reglerats genom en mängd olika lagar såsom Arbetsmiljölagstiftningen, Skollagen och Skadeståndslagen. Det har inte funnits någon direkt och tydlig reglering om hur detta skall handhas. Reglerna i BeL beträffande mobbning benämnt annan kränkande behandling i BeL, fördes 1 januari 2009 över till SkolL kapitel 14 a samtidigt som den del som rör diskriminering fördes över till den nya Diskrimineringslagen. En av de viktigare förändringarna när man överförde reglerna till SkolL är att barnets ställning stärks genom att skolans utredningsplikt av ett påstått problem har vidgats.

Regleringen avseende mobbning stiftar att det är skolans huvudman som har ett skadeståndsansvar gentemot de barn och elever som ingår i den egna verksamheten. De verksamheter som omfattas av lagen är skollagsreglerad verksamhet. Det görs ingen skillnad huruvida verksamheten styrs av stat, kommun eller privat. Lagreglerna är tvingande vilket innebär att det inte är möjligt att träffa avtal om att annat skall gälla i viss verksamhet. Syftet är att man skall tillgodose lagen genom en rad olika förpliktelser. Skadestånd aktualiseras om skolan inte fullgör sina skyldigheter enligt lagen.

”Huvudmannen” verksamheten samt de personer som företräder dessa har en skyldighet att agera förebyggande, att utreda fall av kränkande behandling och att upprätta en årlig plan som förväntas innehålla åtgärder.
När BeL trädde i kraft 2006 inrättades myndigheten barn- och elevombudet för likabehandling, BEO. Hit kan elever vända sig till för att få hjälp.
Den ersättning som kan aktualiseras är en ersättning för kränkning vilket är ett relativt komplext begrepp inom skadeståndsrätten, det handlar om en inte klart mätbar skada och detta kan innebära svårigheter vid skadeståndberäkningen och adekvansbedömningen.

Det saknas vägledande praxis i ämnet eftersom majoriteten av anmälningarna avgörs med förlikningsprocess parterna emellan, men allt fler fall går nu till domstol eftersom kommunerna tröttnat på att betala höga summor utan att få sitt ansvar rättsligt prövat. Detta är en positiv utveckling eftersom det kommer bidra till att klargöra rättsläget. (Less)
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author
Bennet Fredriksson, Josefin LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM01 20092
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Skadeståndsrätt
language
Swedish
id
1600017
date added to LUP
2010-05-06 15:20:49
date last changed
2010-05-06 15:20:49
@misc{1600017,
  abstract     = {‘Bullying’ as a term first appeared in Sweden in the 1960s, and was not considered being a social problem until the 1980s. The perhaps most widespread definition of the term bullying is defined by the Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus: "A person is bullied when he or she has, repeatedly and over time become a victim of negative actions from one or more persons (...) the action shall be made with an intention to harm and, to be classed as bullying, must be performed repeatedly over time."

In 2003 an investigation was appointed eventually resulting in the 2006 Act Against Discrimination And Other Degrading Treatment (Lag mot diskriminering och annan kränkande behandling). This was something that was considered as an urgent task from a political point of view. This was to comply with the UNCRC (Convention on the Rights of the Child), as well as with an EU directive on equal treatment. 

Before 2006 Act Against Discrimination And Other Degrading Treatment came into effect, the abusive behavior that frequently seemed to appear in schools was supposedly governed by a variety of laws, including laws regulating safety in labour environments, the Education Act (Skollagen) and the Law of Damages (Skadeståndslagen). Swedish laws and regulations had for long been lacking a direct and clear regulation on how bullying in schools was supposed to be handled. The rules in 2006 Act Against Discrimination And Other Degrading Treatment on bullying, was January 1, 2009 transferred to the Education Act Chapter 14a, while the part relating to discrimination was transferred to the new Discrimination Act. One of the key changes when transferring the regulation to the Education Act was strengthening child's position through broadening the school's duty of investigation of an alleged problem.

Rules on bullying enact the school principal liability to the children and students as part of his duty. The general activities covered by the new rules are the activities that are regulated by the Education Act. It makes no difference whether the school is controlled by the state, municipal or private. Legislative provisions are mandatory, implying that it is not possible to conclude an agreement that otherwise apply to some general activities. The aim is to force regulatory compliance through a variety of obligations. Compensation arises if the school fails to meet the obligations stated in the Act.

The municipality with liability for the school and the people representing it, such as the head master among others, has a duty to act preventively as to investigate incidents of degrading treatment, and to establish an annual plan that is expected to contain measures.

When 2006 Act Against Discrimination And Other Degrading Treatment came into effect in 2006, the Authority for children and student representative for equal treatment (Barn- och Elevombudsmannen) was established. It was created as an authority for children and young students to turn to for help. The amounts that can arise as a compensation for the bullying is a compensation for the degrading treatment. This is a very complex concept in tort law. Degrading treatment is a not clearly measurable damage, and this may pose difficulties in calculating damages and adequate causality.

The subject of bullying still lack clear guiding practice from the courts, since the majority of cases has been determined by the conciliation process between the parties, but an increasing number of cases are now brought into courts as municipalities have been said to be fed up with paying high amounts of money without getting their responsibilities legally tested. Seen from a judicial perspective, this is a positive development as further court decisions will help to clarify the legal situation.},
  author       = {Bennet Fredriksson, Josefin},
  keyword      = {Skadeståndsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Vem ska trösta Knyttet...och vem ska Knyttet stämma?!},
  year         = {2010},
}