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Kan religiösa manifestationer påverka vår könsjämlikhet?

Thunberg, Emelie LU (2010) HARM13 20101
Department of Business Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Religionsfrihet är en grundläggande mänsklig rättighet. Artikel 9 i Europakonventionen reglerar religionsfriheten och dess begränsningar. Konventionen är inkorporerad i svensk lagstiftning och ska således tillämpas i Sverige. Med anledning av det så kallade handskakningsmålet ställs religionsfriheten i förhållande till arbetet mot ett könsjämlikt arbetsliv. Frågan väcks och diskuteras huruvida religionsfriheten ska ses som en ”större” rättighet än könsjämlikheten eller om arbetet gentemot ett könsjämlikt arbetsliv kan innebära en berättigad begränsning av religionsfriheten?

Praxis från Europadomstolen och Europakommissionen visar att religionsfrihetens kärna, forum internum, är absolut. Att utöva religion genom olika manifestationer... (More)
Religionsfrihet är en grundläggande mänsklig rättighet. Artikel 9 i Europakonventionen reglerar religionsfriheten och dess begränsningar. Konventionen är inkorporerad i svensk lagstiftning och ska således tillämpas i Sverige. Med anledning av det så kallade handskakningsmålet ställs religionsfriheten i förhållande till arbetet mot ett könsjämlikt arbetsliv. Frågan väcks och diskuteras huruvida religionsfriheten ska ses som en ”större” rättighet än könsjämlikheten eller om arbetet gentemot ett könsjämlikt arbetsliv kan innebära en berättigad begränsning av religionsfriheten?

Praxis från Europadomstolen och Europakommissionen visar att religionsfrihetens kärna, forum internum, är absolut. Att utöva religion genom olika manifestationer är emellertid endast ett uttryck för religion, forum externum, och kan begränsas. Praxis visar att arbetsledningsrätten och verksamhetens behov går före den enskildes rätt att utöva sin religion. Även anställningsavtalet och dess beskaffenhet bidrar till begränsning av religionsfriheten. Genom Arrowsmithprincipen uppstår också en yttre gränsdragning kring vilka manifestationer, som trots att de är motiverade av religionen, inte är skyddade av artikel 9.

Religionsfriheten omfattar även frihet till respektive frihet från religion. Frihet till religion, positiv religionsfrihet, innebär, bland annat, rätten att inneha en religion och att uttrycka denna genom de sedvänjor som hör den religiösa övertygelsen till. Friheten från religion, negativ religionsfrihet, innebär, bland annat, rätten att slippa utsättas för andra individers religiösa manifestationer.

Handskakningsmålet avgörs utifrån gällande diskrimineringslagstiftning. Genom att applicera reglerna kring religionsfrihet berörs kärnan i fallet. Tingsrätten dom skulle inte hålla för en prövning i Europadomstolen. För det första bör manifestationen att inte ta i hand enbart anses motiverad av religionen. Som sådan faller den, enligt Arrowsmithprincipen, helt utanför konventionens skydd. Om manifestationen ändå hade funnits vara del av religionens uttryck bör kvinnans negativa frihet att slippa bli påverkad av den religiösa manifestationen gått före mannens frihet att få uttrycka densamma. (Less)
Abstract
Freedom of religion is a fundamental human right. Article 9 of the European Convention regulates religious freedom and its limits. The Convention is incorporated in Swedish law and has to be applied in Sweden. On account of the so-called handshake-case, the freedom of religion is put in relation to work towards a gender-balanced working life. The question is raised and discussed whether freedom of religion should be seen as "better" than the gender equality; or if work towards a gender-balanced working life can be a justifiable restriction on freedom of religion?

Case law from the European Court and the European Commission shows that the core of religious freedom, forum internum, is absolutely. The exercise of religion through various... (More)
Freedom of religion is a fundamental human right. Article 9 of the European Convention regulates religious freedom and its limits. The Convention is incorporated in Swedish law and has to be applied in Sweden. On account of the so-called handshake-case, the freedom of religion is put in relation to work towards a gender-balanced working life. The question is raised and discussed whether freedom of religion should be seen as "better" than the gender equality; or if work towards a gender-balanced working life can be a justifiable restriction on freedom of religion?

Case law from the European Court and the European Commission shows that the core of religious freedom, forum internum, is absolutely. The exercise of religion through various manifestations, however, is only an expression of religion, forum externum, and may be limited. Case law shows that staff management and business planning takes precedence over the individual's right to practice their religion. In addition, the nature of the employment contract contributes to the limitation of religious freedom. By the Arrowsmith principle arises also an outer boundary on which manifestations, that although they are motivated by religion, are not protected by Article 9.

Freedom of religion also includes freedom to and freedom against religion. Freedom to religion, positive freedom of religion, means, among others, the right to hold a religion and to manifest the religion or belief in practice. Freedom against religion, negative freedom of religion, implies, among others, the right not to be exposed to other individuals' religious manifestations.

The handshake-case is determined by current discrimination laws. By applying the rules concerning freedom of religion, the core of the case is affected. The judgement of the Swedish district court would not be able to hold in a trial in the European Court. First, the manifestation of not shaking hands would only be justified by religion. As such it falls, according to the Arrowsmith principle, outside the Convention's protection. If the manifestations yet been found to be part of religious expression, the negative religious freedom of the woman, that avoid her being influenced by the religious manifestation, should have been prior the man's freedom to express it. (Less)
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author
Thunberg, Emelie LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
- Religionsfriheten och dess gränser i arbetet
course
HARM13 20101
year
type
H1 - Master's Degree (One Year)
subject
keywords
Handskakningsmalet, Konsjamlikhet, Artikel 9, Religionsfrihet, Europakonventionen, Arrowsmithprincipen
language
Swedish
id
1613475
date added to LUP
2010-06-23 14:36:57
date last changed
2010-06-23 14:36:57
@misc{1613475,
  abstract     = {Freedom of religion is a fundamental human right. Article 9 of the European Convention regulates religious freedom and its limits. The Convention is incorporated in Swedish law and has to be applied in Sweden. On account of the so-called handshake-case, the freedom of religion is put in relation to work towards a gender-balanced working life. The question is raised and discussed whether freedom of religion should be seen as "better" than the gender equality; or if work towards a gender-balanced working life can be a justifiable restriction on freedom of religion?

Case law from the European Court and the European Commission shows that the core of religious freedom, forum internum, is absolutely. The exercise of religion through various manifestations, however, is only an expression of religion, forum externum, and may be limited. Case law shows that staff management and business planning takes precedence over the individual's right to practice their religion. In addition, the nature of the employment contract contributes to the limitation of religious freedom. By the Arrowsmith principle arises also an outer boundary on which manifestations, that although they are motivated by religion, are not protected by Article 9.

Freedom of religion also includes freedom to and freedom against religion. Freedom to religion, positive freedom of religion, means, among others, the right to hold a religion and to manifest the religion or belief in practice. Freedom against religion, negative freedom of religion, implies, among others, the right not to be exposed to other individuals' religious manifestations.

The handshake-case is determined by current discrimination laws. By applying the rules concerning freedom of religion, the core of the case is affected. The judgement of the Swedish district court would not be able to hold in a trial in the European Court. First, the manifestation of not shaking hands would only be justified by religion. As such it falls, according to the Arrowsmith principle, outside the Convention's protection. If the manifestations yet been found to be part of religious expression, the negative religious freedom of the woman, that avoid her being influenced by the religious manifestation, should have been prior the man's freedom to express it.},
  author       = {Thunberg, Emelie},
  keyword      = {Handskakningsmalet,Konsjamlikhet,Artikel 9,Religionsfrihet,Europakonventionen,Arrowsmithprincipen
},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Kan religiösa manifestationer påverka vår könsjämlikhet?},
  year         = {2010},
}