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The Legitimacy of the InfoSoc Directive - Specifically Regarding the Copyright Exceptions

Schönning, Johannes LU (2010) JURM01 20101
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Det digitala samhällets utmaningar för EU:s upphovsrättsliga system är många. Med syftet att implementera WIPO:s internettraktater från 1996, samt att horisontellt harmonisera regelverket för upphovsrätt och närliggande rättigheter, antog EU år 2001 det mycket kritiserade InfoSoc-direktivet. Dess mest kontroversiella delar rör upphovsrättsundantagen samt det specifika skyddet som ges till tekniska skyddsåtgärder.

I det här arbetet framförs att direktivet inte åstadkom det uttalade målet om harmonisering av den inre marknaden, och att det misslyckades att respektera medlemsstaternas rättskulturer på ett adekvat sätt, samt att det inte tog tillräcklig hänsyn till frågor om konsumentskydd, som EU:s funktionsfördrag kräver. I sin... (More)
Det digitala samhällets utmaningar för EU:s upphovsrättsliga system är många. Med syftet att implementera WIPO:s internettraktater från 1996, samt att horisontellt harmonisera regelverket för upphovsrätt och närliggande rättigheter, antog EU år 2001 det mycket kritiserade InfoSoc-direktivet. Dess mest kontroversiella delar rör upphovsrättsundantagen samt det specifika skyddet som ges till tekniska skyddsåtgärder.

I det här arbetet framförs att direktivet inte åstadkom det uttalade målet om harmonisering av den inre marknaden, och att det misslyckades att respektera medlemsstaternas rättskulturer på ett adekvat sätt, samt att det inte tog tillräcklig hänsyn till frågor om konsumentskydd, som EU:s funktionsfördrag kräver. I sin balansering av upphovsrättsinnehavares och allmänhetens intressen, tog inte InfoSoc-direktivet tillräcklig hänsyn till slutanvändares behov av ett dynamiskt regelverk. Den uttömmande listan upphovsrättsundantag i artikel 5 beaktade inte att det i den digitala sfären uppkommer nya affärsmodeller på löpande band. Detta har begränsat medlemsstaternas handlingsutrymme i att bemöta framtida teknologiska utvecklingar. Genom att alla utom ett upphovsrättsundantag gjordes frivilliga, har medlemsstaterna i stort behållit sina tidigare upphovsrättsundantag. Nio år efter direktivets antagande och i motsats till direktivets ursprungliga syfte, är bristen på harmonisering fortfarande stor. Undantagslistans uttömmande natur misslyckades med att respektera medlemsstaternas rättskulturer, särskilt i den digitala sfären där klausulen om undantag av mindre betydelse inte är tillämplig. Genom att frångå tidigare sekundärrätt såsom mjukvarudirektivet, skapar InfoSoc-direktivet ny terminologi och nya regleringar gällande privatkopieringsundantaget och tekniska skyddsåtgärder, med den primära effekten att upphovsrättsinnehavare legitimt kan på kontraktuell och teknologisk väg inskränka användandet av undantag. Säkerhetsnätet mot detta, artikel 6(4), utformades på ett sådant sätt att medlemsstaterna fråntogs effektiva verktyg mot teknologiska inskränkningar. Artikeln är överhuvudtaget inte tillämplig på interaktiva on-demand-tjänster.

Framtida förbättringar och modifieringar är möjliga. Medan ett EU-rättsligt upphovsrättssystem inte på länge kommer att se dagens ljus, kan harmonisering av upphovsrättsundantag åstadkommas bättre, genom en kortare, icke-uttömmande lista med bredare undantag, i vilken hänsyn tas för medlemsstaternas behov att anpassa sig till framtida teknologisk utveckling. Privatkopieringsundantagen skulle kunna appliceras helt i den digitala sfären genom att skapa ett system med privatkopieringsersättning ovanpå t.ex. bredbandsavgifter, samtidigt som man tillåter obegränsad digital privatkopiering för ickekommersiellt bruk. Genom att omforma undantag till användarrättigheter, kan man säkerställa att kringgående av tekniska skyddsåtgärder för vissa ändamål blir lagligt. (Less)
Abstract
The challenges of the digital networked environment to the EU copyright system are many. With the task of implementing the 1996 WIPO Internet Treaties while at the same time horizontally harmonizing the legal framework on copyright and related rights, the EU in 2001 adopted the much-criticized InfoSoc Directive. Its most controversial provisions were on copyright exceptions and the specific protection offered to technological protection measures.

This thesis argues that the Directive did not achieve its objective of market harmonization, and failed to adequately respect national legal cultures, or sufficiently consider issues of consumer protection, as laid out in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The InfoSoc... (More)
The challenges of the digital networked environment to the EU copyright system are many. With the task of implementing the 1996 WIPO Internet Treaties while at the same time horizontally harmonizing the legal framework on copyright and related rights, the EU in 2001 adopted the much-criticized InfoSoc Directive. Its most controversial provisions were on copyright exceptions and the specific protection offered to technological protection measures.

This thesis argues that the Directive did not achieve its objective of market harmonization, and failed to adequately respect national legal cultures, or sufficiently consider issues of consumer protection, as laid out in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The InfoSoc Directive did not, in striking a balance between the interests of copyright holders and the public, provide for a dynamic framework from the perspective of the end-user. The exhaustive list of copyright exceptions contained in Article 5 did not take into account the fact that new business models arise at a tremendous speed in the digital sphere, and in not so doing, has restricted Member States from responding properly to future technical developments. By making all but one of the copyright exceptions optional, Member States have largely been allowed to keep their previous statutory copyright exceptions. Nine years after the adoption of the Directive there is still a lack of harmonization of copyright exceptions, despite that being the original objective. The exhaustive nature of the list of copyright exceptions failed to respect national legal cultures, especially in the digital sphere where the provision on minor exceptions is not applicable. The InfoSoc Directive, departing from earlier secondary legislation such as the Software Directive, created new terminology and provisions concerning the private-copying exception and technological protection measures, essentially allowing for copyright holders to contractually and technologically limit the use of copyright exceptions. The intended safety net contained in Article 6(4) was drafted in such a way that it derived Member States of effective tools against such technological limitations. Further, it is not applicable to interactive on-demand services at all.

Looking forward, a number of enhancements are possible. While a system of EU copyright law is far away, harmonization of copyright exceptions could be better achieved by providing for a shorter, open-ended list of broader exceptions, taking into consideration the need for Member States to adapt to future technological advancements. The private-copying exception could be applied wholly in the digital sphere by creating a levy system, compensating copyright holders with flat-rate charges on e.g. Internet connections, while allowing for unlimited digital private-copying for non-commercial purposes. By transforming copyright exceptions into user 'rights,' the circumvention of technological protection measures for certain uses would be legalized. (Less)
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author
Schönning, Johannes LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM01 20101
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
EG-rätt, Immaterialrätt
language
English
id
1628198
date added to LUP
2010-07-14 16:09:11
date last changed
2010-07-14 16:09:11
@misc{1628198,
  abstract     = {The challenges of the digital networked environment to the EU copyright system are many. With the task of implementing the 1996 WIPO Internet Treaties while at the same time horizontally harmonizing the legal framework on copyright and related rights, the EU in 2001 adopted the much-criticized InfoSoc Directive. Its most controversial provisions were on copyright exceptions and the specific protection offered to technological protection measures.

This thesis argues that the Directive did not achieve its objective of market harmonization, and failed to adequately respect national legal cultures, or sufficiently consider issues of consumer protection, as laid out in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The InfoSoc Directive did not, in striking a balance between the interests of copyright holders and the public, provide for a dynamic framework from the perspective of the end-user. The exhaustive list of copyright exceptions contained in Article 5 did not take into account the fact that new business models arise at a tremendous speed in the digital sphere, and in not so doing, has restricted Member States from responding properly to future technical developments. By making all but one of the copyright exceptions optional, Member States have largely been allowed to keep their previous statutory copyright exceptions. Nine years after the adoption of the Directive there is still a lack of harmonization of copyright exceptions, despite that being the original objective. The exhaustive nature of the list of copyright exceptions failed to respect national legal cultures, especially in the digital sphere where the provision on minor exceptions is not applicable. The InfoSoc Directive, departing from earlier secondary legislation such as the Software Directive, created new terminology and provisions concerning the private-copying exception and technological protection measures, essentially allowing for copyright holders to contractually and technologically limit the use of copyright exceptions. The intended safety net contained in Article 6(4) was drafted in such a way that it derived Member States of effective tools against such technological limitations. Further, it is not applicable to interactive on-demand services at all.

Looking forward, a number of enhancements are possible. While a system of EU copyright law is far away, harmonization of copyright exceptions could be better achieved by providing for a shorter, open-ended list of broader exceptions, taking into consideration the need for Member States to adapt to future technological advancements. The private-copying exception could be applied wholly in the digital sphere by creating a levy system, compensating copyright holders with flat-rate charges on e.g. Internet connections, while allowing for unlimited digital private-copying for non-commercial purposes. By transforming copyright exceptions into user 'rights,' the circumvention of technological protection measures for certain uses would be legalized.},
  author       = {Schönning, Johannes},
  keyword      = {EG-rätt,Immaterialrätt},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {The Legitimacy of the InfoSoc Directive - Specifically Regarding the Copyright Exceptions},
  year         = {2010},
}