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Föräldraskap i förändring

Kohlström, Karolina LU (2010) JURM01 20101
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Samhället har genomgått stora förändringar sedan regleringen kring rättsligt föräldraskap instiftades för första gången. Såväl ny medicinsk teknik som nya accepterade familjekonstellationer har bidragit till att den gamla regleringen har krävt en omarbetning. Vem som ska uppnå status som rättslig förälder och varför har därav ändrats.

Från början var utgångspunkten för fastställandet av rättsligt föräldraskap att någon skulle vara ansvarig för barnet. Vem denna någon var hade inte så stor betydelse. Den synen övergick sedan till att de biologiska föräldrarna skulle vara de ansvariga för barnet. Idag har synsättet för det rättsliga föräldraskapet ändrats än en gång. Det är fortfarande det biologiska släktskapet som är utgångspunkten men... (More)
Samhället har genomgått stora förändringar sedan regleringen kring rättsligt föräldraskap instiftades för första gången. Såväl ny medicinsk teknik som nya accepterade familjekonstellationer har bidragit till att den gamla regleringen har krävt en omarbetning. Vem som ska uppnå status som rättslig förälder och varför har därav ändrats.

Från början var utgångspunkten för fastställandet av rättsligt föräldraskap att någon skulle vara ansvarig för barnet. Vem denna någon var hade inte så stor betydelse. Den synen övergick sedan till att de biologiska föräldrarna skulle vara de ansvariga för barnet. Idag har synsättet för det rättsliga föräldraskapet ändrats än en gång. Det är fortfarande det biologiska släktskapet som är utgångspunkten men en social konstruktion i form av lämnat samtycke har fått genomslagskraft vid assisterade befruktningar.

Barnets bästa ska vara utgångspunkten för fastställandet av det rättsliga föräldraskapet. Det är huvudsakligen tre intressen som kan utskiljas från barnets perspektiv: rätten att veta sitt ursprung, rätten att bli omvårdad och försörjd samt rätten att tillhöra en familj. Vid en ”vanlig” graviditet uppfylls rätten till ursprunget genom att de biologiska föräldrarna även blir rättsliga föräldrar. Vid en assisterad befruktning har man tillgodosett barnets rätt genom att donatorn av ägg och spermier inte får vara anonym. Rätten att bli omvårdad och försörjd uppfylls genom att de rättsliga föräldrarna åläggs ett ansvar för att denna rättighet blir uppfylld. Därmed inte sagt att det är den rättsliga föräldern som personligen måste ta hand om barnet utan endast se till att någon gör det. Rätten att tillhöra en familj är det sista av barnets intressen som kommer att behandlas i uppsatsen. Utgångspunkten är att föräldraskap innebär en livslång relation som inte ska kunna upplösas. Inför en assisterad befruktning görs en lämplighetsprövning där de blivande föräldrarnas intention om att ta hand om barnet, samt att deras relation är stabil och varaktig, kontrolleras.

Trots att man idag har tillåtit föräldrar av samma kön har de ändringar som krävts endast placerats in i den gamla konstruktionen. Att det i praktiken ofta är det sociala föräldraskapet som får genomslagskraft för det rättsliga föräldraskapet, när själva konstruktionen kring rättsligt föräldraskap fortfarande vilar på det biologiska släktskapets grunder, innebär att barnets bästa inte alltid tillgodoses. En ändring av hela systemet som sådant bör övervägas. Detta kan ske genom att fler än två vuxna får sina relationer till barnet rättsligt erkända. Alla rättsverkningar som följer av föräldraskapet behöver inte vara knutna till en och samma person. På så sätt blir fler intressen tillgodosedda. Både föräldrarna och barnet får en rättsligt erkänd familj och samhället får någon som har ansvaret för barnet. (Less)
Abstract
The society has gone through major changes ever since the first legal provisions concerning legal parenthood were adopted. As a result of new forms of socially accepted family constellations and new techniques within medicine, this has helped push for a reform of the old regulation.

Something which has come to change over time is criteria concerning who is eligible to be given the status of legal parent as well as the reasons why. The benchmark to give a person the status of legal parenthood was originally that someone had to be responsible for the child. Who this person was, however, did not seem to matter. This view evolved and eventually came to transcend into a wish for the biological parents to hold the status of legal parenthood.... (More)
The society has gone through major changes ever since the first legal provisions concerning legal parenthood were adopted. As a result of new forms of socially accepted family constellations and new techniques within medicine, this has helped push for a reform of the old regulation.

Something which has come to change over time is criteria concerning who is eligible to be given the status of legal parent as well as the reasons why. The benchmark to give a person the status of legal parenthood was originally that someone had to be responsible for the child. Who this person was, however, did not seem to matter. This view evolved and eventually came to transcend into a wish for the biological parents to hold the status of legal parenthood. Now, once again, the terms have changed and thereby also the view on legal parenthood. Today the biological kinship still constitutes the base within this type of decision making. However, social parenthood is a concept that has been given higher priority in specific situations, especially when it comes to assisted reproduction.

When it comes to defining legal parenthood, it is the best interest of the child that should be the starting point. From the child’s perspective, three different interests can be distinguished: the right to know one’s genetic origin, the right to be cared and provided for, and finally the right to belong to a family. With ‘regular’ pregnancies, the child’s right to know its origin is met by that the biological parents also become the legal parents. When the reproduction has been assisted, this right is instead met by the fact that the donor of sperm or eggs is not and cannot be anonymous. The child’s right to be cared and provided for is met by that the legal parents are prescribed with a responsibility to make sure that the child gets cared and provided for. This, however, does not mean that the legal parent has to provide for the child personally. The legal parent only has to make sure that the child’s rights are met, something which can be done by someone else than the legal parent in person. Finally, the child also has a legal right to belong to a family. The starting point is that parenthood equals a lifelong relation that cannot be resolved. Before an assisted reproduction is initiated, a suitability test is made where the soon-to-be parents’ intentions to care for the child are controlled, as well as the stability of their relation.

Despite the fact that same sex parenthood is accepted, the changes that have been made to accompany this have only been placed within the ‘old’ system. To use social parenthood as a ground for legal parenthood, when the system of legal parenthood is still based on the grounds of biological kinship often leads to situations where the best interest of the child is not prioritized. A reform of the entire system should therefore be considered. One suggestion could be that more than two adults can be given legal recognition in regard to their relations to a child. All legal effects that follow parenthood do not necessary have to be tied to one person. This way, more interests can be met and prioritized. Both the parents and the child would be given a legally recognized family and the society will ensure that someone is responsible for the child. (Less)
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author
Kohlström, Karolina LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM01 20101
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
1628237
date added to LUP
2010-07-15 14:30:26
date last changed
2010-07-15 14:30:26
@misc{1628237,
  abstract     = {The society has gone through major changes ever since the first legal provisions concerning legal parenthood were adopted. As a result of new forms of socially accepted family constellations and new techniques within medicine, this has helped push for a reform of the old regulation.

Something which has come to change over time is criteria concerning who is eligible to be given the status of legal parent as well as the reasons why. The benchmark to give a person the status of legal parenthood was originally that someone had to be responsible for the child. Who this person was, however, did not seem to matter. This view evolved and eventually came to transcend into a wish for the biological parents to hold the status of legal parenthood. Now, once again, the terms have changed and thereby also the view on legal parenthood. Today the biological kinship still constitutes the base within this type of decision making. However, social parenthood is a concept that has been given higher priority in specific situations, especially when it comes to assisted reproduction.

When it comes to defining legal parenthood, it is the best interest of the child that should be the starting point. From the child’s perspective, three different interests can be distinguished: the right to know one’s genetic origin, the right to be cared and provided for, and finally the right to belong to a family. With ‘regular’ pregnancies, the child’s right to know its origin is met by that the biological parents also become the legal parents. When the reproduction has been assisted, this right is instead met by the fact that the donor of sperm or eggs is not and cannot be anonymous. The child’s right to be cared and provided for is met by that the legal parents are prescribed with a responsibility to make sure that the child gets cared and provided for. This, however, does not mean that the legal parent has to provide for the child personally. The legal parent only has to make sure that the child’s rights are met, something which can be done by someone else than the legal parent in person. Finally, the child also has a legal right to belong to a family. The starting point is that parenthood equals a lifelong relation that cannot be resolved. Before an assisted reproduction is initiated, a suitability test is made where the soon-to-be parents’ intentions to care for the child are controlled, as well as the stability of their relation.

Despite the fact that same sex parenthood is accepted, the changes that have been made to accompany this have only been placed within the ‘old’ system. To use social parenthood as a ground for legal parenthood, when the system of legal parenthood is still based on the grounds of biological kinship often leads to situations where the best interest of the child is not prioritized. A reform of the entire system should therefore be considered. One suggestion could be that more than two adults can be given legal recognition in regard to their relations to a child. All legal effects that follow parenthood do not necessary have to be tied to one person. This way, more interests can be met and prioritized. Both the parents and the child would be given a legally recognized family and the society will ensure that someone is responsible for the child.},
  author       = {Kohlström, Karolina},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Föräldraskap i förändring},
  year         = {2010},
}