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Vem ser barnen? En rättsvetenskaplig uppsats om barn till intellektuellt funktionshindrade föräldrar.

Hansson, Kerstin LU (2010) JURM01 20101
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Föreliggande uppsats är ett examensarbete i juris kandidatprogrammet. Uppsatsen är skriven inom områdena familjerätt och socialrätt. Syftet med uppsatsen är att synliggöra och studera den eller de konflikter som kan uppkomma mellan barnens och föräldrarnas rättigheter, gällande barn som har intellektuellt funktionshindrade föräldrar.

En föräldraroll är aldrig enkel och ett föräldraskap aldrig homogent. Alla föräldrar ställs inför svårigheter. Oavsett detta har alltid ett barn grundläggande rättigheter. Enligt FN:s Barnkonvention har alla barn och ungdomar samma rättigheter. Bl.a. rätt till en trygg uppväxt, rätt till två föräldrar, rätten till sina åsikter, rätt att bli lyssnad på och respekterad. Barnets rätt ska dessutom alltid... (More)
Föreliggande uppsats är ett examensarbete i juris kandidatprogrammet. Uppsatsen är skriven inom områdena familjerätt och socialrätt. Syftet med uppsatsen är att synliggöra och studera den eller de konflikter som kan uppkomma mellan barnens och föräldrarnas rättigheter, gällande barn som har intellektuellt funktionshindrade föräldrar.

En föräldraroll är aldrig enkel och ett föräldraskap aldrig homogent. Alla föräldrar ställs inför svårigheter. Oavsett detta har alltid ett barn grundläggande rättigheter. Enligt FN:s Barnkonvention har alla barn och ungdomar samma rättigheter. Bl.a. rätt till en trygg uppväxt, rätt till två föräldrar, rätten till sina åsikter, rätt att bli lyssnad på och respekterad. Barnets rätt ska dessutom alltid sättas i främsta rummet. Barnkonventionen är inkorporerad i den svenska gällande rätten, detta innebär att de lagar som rör barn ska sätta barnens bästa i främsta rummet. Föräldrar har även rättigheter även om de aldrig har en självklar rätt till sina barn.

Utifrån den knapphända forskning som finns vet man att det i Sverige föds ungefär 160 barn årligen av utvecklingsstörda mödrar. Detta innebär att det finns ungefär 3000 barn mellan 0-18 år som lever med en intellektuellt funktionshindrad förälder. Utvecklingsstörningen kan bero på olika saker, oftast uppstår den redan under fosterstadiet eller under barnets första levnadsår. Man vet också att det finns en genetisk risk att föra det intellektuella handikappet vidare.

Personer med ett intellektuellt funktionshinder har ofta avvikelser från vad som anses typiskt i människors sätt att tänka, lösa abstrakta problem och andra typiska vardagsproblem. Skador på det centrala nervsystemet kan försvåra eller hindra lagringen av information. För den intellektuellt funktionshindrade återges grunden för kunskapen ofta i konkreta upplevelser, vidare kan det vara svårt att bygga upp en inre föreställning om vem hon är och att reflektera över hur hon och andra fungerar. Detta kan medföra att det är omöjligt att sätta sig in i någon annan persons situation. För en person med ett intellektuellt funktionshinder tar det även längre tid att lära sig något, men den stora svårigheten kan ligga i att kunna praktisera lärandet, sätta in det i rätt sammanhang och hitta alternativa lösningar.

Alla barn har grundläggande behov som måste tillfredställas. De största behovet är kroppsliga behov, därefter kommer trygghet, gemenskap, tillgivenhet, uppskattning och självförverkligande. Till de grundläggande behoven räknas mat och dryck i lagom mängd, sömn, omvårdnad, anpassade kläder, god hygien, vård vid sjukdom samt fysisk beröring. Om ett barn inte får sina grundläggande behov tillfredställda tar de djup skada, som kan vara svårt att gottgöra längre fram i livet. Det är även viktigt att barnet kan knyta an till sina omsorgspersoner, vanligen föräldrarna. En otrygg anknytning kan leda till stora svårigheter för resten av livet.
Många forskare pekar på att barn till intellektuellt funktionshindrade föräldrar ska ses som en riskgrupp. Barn till intellektuellt funktionshindrade föräldrar riskerar i större utsträckning än andra barn att få för lite stimulans, råka ut för olyckor och skador i hemmet, försummas och utsättas för våld. Barn med utvecklingsstörda föräldrar är även i större mån försenade i sin utveckling och har fler beteendestörningar än andra barn. Detta kan bero på brist i stimulans och stora skillnader mellan barnens och föräldrarnas intellektuella kapacitet.

Föräldraförmågan påverkas av en rad olika faktorer exempelvis ekonomiska förhållanden, boende- och arbetssituationen samt det sociala nätverket och hur det fungerar. Den fysiska och psykiska hälsan är även av betydelse. Ju fler problem vad gäller dessa faktorer, desto större påfrestningar i föräldraskapet. Intellektuellt funktionshindrade som grupp har i regel ett tunt socialt nätverk, är utestängda från arbetsmarknaden, har dålig ekonomi och svagt inflytande. Detta är riskfaktorer som bör vägas in när man bedömer föräldrars kapacitet.

Det är barnets föräldrar eller vårdnadshavare som har huvudansvaret om sina barn. Detta stadgas i FB kapitel 6. Även internationella rättighetsinstitut stadgar barnens och föräldrars rättigheter, men även myndigheters skyldigheter. Det är först när barnet far illa, eller riskerar att fara illa som samhället kan gå in och ta över hela eller delar av ansvaret. Samhällets ansvar blir därmed subsidiärt i förhållande till föräldrarnas ansvar. Om det finns en påtaglig risk för att barnets hälsa eller utveckling skadas och det inte finns samtycke från föräldrarna kan barnet tvångsomhändertagas i enighet med 2 § LVU. Paragrafen reglerar de s.k. miljöfallen där problemsituationerna som uppställs är misshandel, otillbörligt utnyttjande, brister i omsorg och/eller något annat förhållande i hemmet. Under 2008 omhändertogs det ungefär 200 barn och unga i enighet med 2 § LVU. Hur många av dessa som hade utvecklingsstörda föräldrar vet man inte, men det är relativt få.

Uppsatsen är skriven ur ett utvidgat rättsdogmatiskt perspektiv, då den juridiska litteratur som finns på området är bristfällig. Uppsatsen har även en empirisk undersökning från Hallands Länsrätt där domar med barn till intellektuellt funktionshindrade föräldrar varit aktuella. Teorin och analysen till denna undersökning är teorin om de normativa grundmönstren. (Less)
Abstract
The following essay aim to discuss and make visible the conflicts that may arise between parents and their children when one or both parents are mentally retarded. Parenthood isn’t easy. Every parent will at some point feel inadequate in their parenting role. Irrespective of that the child always has fundamental rights. According to Convention of the Rights of the Child states parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible survival and development of the child, every child has a right to express their views freely in all matters affecting the child and in all action concerning children should the best interests of the child be a primary consideration. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is incorporated into Swedish law, which... (More)
The following essay aim to discuss and make visible the conflicts that may arise between parents and their children when one or both parents are mentally retarded. Parenthood isn’t easy. Every parent will at some point feel inadequate in their parenting role. Irrespective of that the child always has fundamental rights. According to Convention of the Rights of the Child states parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible survival and development of the child, every child has a right to express their views freely in all matters affecting the child and in all action concerning children should the best interests of the child be a primary consideration. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is incorporated into Swedish law, which means that the convention is a current rule in Sweden. Parents also have rights but this does not automatically mean that they always have parenting rights to their children.

On the basis of the meagre research within the framework of these parents, we know that about 160 children in Sweden are born every year of mothers with retardation. This means that there are about 3000 children between the ages of 0-18 who lives with a parent with a mental retardation. The retardation could depend of many different things; most common is that the injury arises in the embryonic stage or in the first year of life. We also know that there is a genetic risk that the retardation is passed on to the next generation.

Persons suffering from mental retardation often display behaviour deviating from what is considered normal as to thinking and solving abstract problems and other typical everyday problems. Damages to the central nervous system can make it harder or even prevent storing information. The mentally retarded often has experiences as the foundation for their knowledge; furthermore it can be difficult to build an internal representation of who she is and to reflect on how she and others work. This may mean that it is impossible to understand someone else´s situation. For a person with a mental retardation, it takes much longer to learn something than it takes someone without a retardation, but the biggest difference might be that the mentally challenged has a much harder time teaching someone else, put it in context and find alternate solutions.

All children have basic needs that must be satisfied. The principal ones are the physical, thereafter security, community, affection, appreciation, and self-fulfilment. Among the basic physical needs the following are included; food and drink in moderation, sleep, care, clothes, hygiene, nursing, and physical contact. If a child does not have their basic needs fulfilled it will be detrimental to its development and it will be very difficult to make up for later in life. It is very important that the child can bond with the person taking care of them, most commonly the parents. An insecure attachment may lead to great difficulties in the rest of their lives.

Many researchers believe that children of mentally handicapped constitute a risk group. These children are in a greater extent exposed to violence, neglect, accidents, and are likely to be under stimulated. These children are often delayed in their development and have more often behavioural difficulties than other children. This might be because of the significant differences between the child and the parent’s intellectual capacity.

Parenting ability is affected by a long row of different factors like; economic situation, housing- and working conditions, as well as social network. The physical and mental health is also of importance. The bigger the problems relating to the above mentioned factors, the greater the strain will be on the parent. Intellectually disabled as a group generally has a thin social network, are excluded from jobs, have poor economy and weak influence in society. These are factors that should be taken under consideration when we evaluate parenting capacity.

Swedish Law states that it is the child’s parents or guardian who is primarily responsible for a child , this provides in Parental Code chapter 6. Although international institutions set the rights for children and parents they also decide the obligations of the authorities. It is only when the child suffers, or could be suffering, that society is allowed to enter and take over all or part of the responsibility for the child. Society’s responsibility is therefore secondary to the parent’s responsibility. If there is a substantial risk for the health and development of the child and if the parents or guardian does not consent to a care plane the child can be removed by force in agreement with Swedish Law The care of young person act 2 §. The care of young person act 2 § regulates the so called environmental cases that includes problems like abuse, maltreatment, neglect and/or other problems that can arise within a home. During 2008 close to 200 children were taken in to care in accordance with The care of young person act 2 §. Not many of these children have parents suffering from mental retardation, but it's difficult to know for certain how many since it has not been studied.

Due to the poor legal material in the field this essay is written from an enlarged jurisprudence perspective. During the work on this essay a study from Hallands administrative court has been used. The analysis to this empirical study had its basis in the theory of normative patterns. (Less)
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author
Hansson, Kerstin LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM01 20101
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Socialrätt
language
Swedish
id
1628243
date added to LUP
2010-07-15 15:36:28
date last changed
2010-07-15 15:36:28
@misc{1628243,
  abstract     = {The following essay aim to discuss and make visible the conflicts that may arise between  parents and their children when one or both parents are mentally retarded. Parenthood isn’t easy. Every parent will at some point feel inadequate in their parenting role. Irrespective of that the child always has fundamental rights. According to Convention of the Rights of the Child states parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible survival and development of the child, every child has a right to express their views freely in all matters affecting the child and in all action concerning children should the best interests of the child be a primary consideration. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is incorporated into Swedish law, which means that the convention is a current rule in Sweden. Parents also have rights but this does not automatically mean that they always have parenting rights to their children.

On the basis of the meagre research within the framework of these parents, we know that about 160 children in Sweden are born every year of mothers with retardation. This means that there are about 3000 children between the ages of 0-18 who lives with a parent with a mental retardation. The retardation could depend of many different things; most common is that the injury arises in the embryonic stage or in the first year of life. We also know that there is a genetic risk that the retardation is passed on to the next generation.

Persons suffering from mental retardation often display behaviour deviating from what is considered normal as to thinking and solving abstract problems and other typical everyday problems. Damages to the central nervous system can make it harder or even prevent storing information. The mentally retarded often has experiences as the foundation for their knowledge; furthermore it can be difficult to build an internal representation of who she is and to reflect on how she and others work. This may mean that it is impossible to understand someone else´s situation. For a person with a mental retardation, it takes much longer to learn something than it takes someone without a retardation, but the biggest difference might be that the mentally challenged has a much harder time teaching someone else, put it in context and find alternate solutions.

All children have basic needs that must be satisfied. The principal ones are the physical, thereafter security, community, affection, appreciation, and self-fulfilment. Among the basic physical needs the following are included; food and drink in moderation, sleep, care, clothes, hygiene, nursing, and physical contact. If a child does not have their basic needs fulfilled it will be detrimental to its development and it will be very difficult to make up for later in life. It is very important that the child can bond with the person taking care of them, most commonly the parents. An insecure attachment may lead to great difficulties in the rest of their lives.

Many researchers believe that children of mentally handicapped constitute a risk group. These children are in a greater extent exposed to violence, neglect, accidents, and are likely to be under stimulated. These children are often delayed in their development and have more often behavioural difficulties than other children. This might be because of the significant differences between the child and the parent’s intellectual capacity.

Parenting ability is affected by a long row of different factors like; economic situation, housing- and working conditions, as well as social network. The physical and mental health is also of importance. The bigger the problems relating to the above mentioned factors, the greater the strain will be on the parent. Intellectually disabled as a group generally has a thin social network, are excluded from jobs, have poor economy and weak influence in society. These are factors that should be taken under consideration when we evaluate parenting capacity.  

Swedish Law states that it is the child’s parents or guardian who is primarily responsible for a child , this provides in Parental Code chapter 6. Although international institutions set the rights for children and parents they also decide the obligations of the authorities. It is only when the child suffers, or could be suffering, that society is allowed to enter and take over all or part of the responsibility for the child. Society’s responsibility is therefore secondary to the parent’s responsibility. If there is a substantial risk for the health and development of the child and if the parents or guardian does not consent to a care plane the child can be removed by force in agreement with Swedish Law The care of young person act 2 §. The care of young person act 2 § regulates the so called environmental cases that includes problems like abuse, maltreatment, neglect and/or other problems that can arise within a home. During 2008 close to 200 children were taken in to care in accordance with The care of young person act 2 §. Not many of these children have parents suffering from mental retardation, but it's difficult to know for certain how many since it has not been studied. 

Due to the poor legal material in the field this essay is written from an enlarged jurisprudence perspective. During the work on this essay a study from Hallands administrative court has been used. The analysis to this empirical study had its basis in the theory of normative patterns.},
  author       = {Hansson, Kerstin},
  keyword      = {Socialrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Vem ser barnen? En rättsvetenskaplig uppsats om barn till intellektuellt funktionshindrade föräldrar.},
  year         = {2010},
}