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Barnets bästa och uppehållstillstånd på grund av synnerligen ömmande omständigheter

Bönner, Anna-Maria LU (2010) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Begreppet barnets bästa är en av de fyra grundläggande principerna i Förenta Nationernas konvention den 20 november 1989 om barnets rättigheter, Barnkonventionen. Principen om barnets bästa återspeglas även inom utlänningsrätten och enligt 1 kap. 10 § utlänningslagen (2005:716) skall i fall som rör ett barn särskilt beaktas vad hänsynen till barnets hälsa och utveckling samt barnets bästa i övrigt kräver. Bestämmelsen har införts med artikel 3 i Barnkonventionen som förebild.

I 5 kap. 6 § UtlL stadgas att om uppehållstillstånd inte kan ges på annan grund, får tillstånd beviljas en utlänning om det vid en samlad bedömning av utlänningens situation föreligger sådana synnerligen ömmande omständigheter att han eller hon bör tillåtas stanna... (More)
Begreppet barnets bästa är en av de fyra grundläggande principerna i Förenta Nationernas konvention den 20 november 1989 om barnets rättigheter, Barnkonventionen. Principen om barnets bästa återspeglas även inom utlänningsrätten och enligt 1 kap. 10 § utlänningslagen (2005:716) skall i fall som rör ett barn särskilt beaktas vad hänsynen till barnets hälsa och utveckling samt barnets bästa i övrigt kräver. Bestämmelsen har införts med artikel 3 i Barnkonventionen som förebild.

I 5 kap. 6 § UtlL stadgas att om uppehållstillstånd inte kan ges på annan grund, får tillstånd beviljas en utlänning om det vid en samlad bedömning av utlänningens situation föreligger sådana synnerligen ömmande omständigheter att han eller hon bör tillåtas stanna i Sverige. Vid bedömningen skall särskilt beaktas utlänningens hälsotillstånd, anpassning till Sverige och situation i hemlandet. För att förtydliga bestämmelsen om barnets bästa i 1 kap. 10 § UtlL infördes i 5 kap. 6 § 2 st UtlL att barn får beviljas uppehållstillstånd även om de omständigheter som kommer fram inte har samma allvar och tyngd som krävs för att tillstånd skall beviljas vuxna personer.

I detta arbete belyses tolkningen av begreppet barnets bästa och uppehållstillstånd för barn på grund av synnerligen ömmande omständigheter inom svensk rätt och om tillämpningen av uppehållstillståndsrekvisitet synnerligen ömmande omständigheter står i överensstämmelse med tolkningen av begreppet barnets bästa.

Barnets bästa är ett mycket brett begrepp och ett entydigt svar på vad som avses med barnets bästa inom utlänningslagstiftningen står ej att finna. Synnerligen ömmande omständigheter har i lagstiftningen givits en allmänt hållen prägel där det inte uttömmande anges vilka omständigheter som skall beaktas vid bedömningen. Föreliggande omständigheter skall vägas samman och bestämmelsen är vidare fakultativ på sätt att uppehållstillstånd får ges men ej skall ges.

Det förhållandet att 5 kap. 6 § UtlL infördes som ett förtydligande av portalbestämmelsen om barnets bästa i 1 kap.10 § UtlL synes särskilt för barn ha skapat förväntningar om en generös tolkning av begreppet synnerligen ömmande omständigheter. Bestämmelsen fick karaktär av generalklausul med förtydligande i andra stycket att barn får beviljas uppehållstillstånd även om de omständigheter som kommer fram ej har samma allvar och tyngd som krävs för att tillstånd skall beviljas vuxna personer. Migrationsöverdomstolen har dock i sina avgöranden återkommande understrukit bestämmelsens karaktär av undantagsbestämmelse och lagt vikt vid en restriktiv tillämpning av densamma. Avsikten med förtydligandet var ej att tillskapa en mer generös utlänningslagstiftning vad gäller barn, utan en tydligare sådan.

Sverige har åtagit sig att följa Barnkonventionen. Portalbestämmelsen i 1 kap. 10 § UtlL och erinran därom i 5 kap. 6 § 2 st UtlL har införts för att understryka betydelsen av barnets bästa i tillämpningen av UtlL. Nämnda bestämmelser i UtlL innebär dock i realiteten inget förstärkt skydd för barn i förhållande till den redan tidigare gällande Barnkonventionen. Det kan framstå som politiskt och pedagogiskt korrekt att i UtlL framhålla barnets bästa, dock förefaller denna strävan mera vara i främsta rummet än hänsynen till barnets bästa. (Less)
Abstract
One of the four fundamental principles of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of a Child is that of devotion to the best interests of the child. This is written in the UNCRC Article 3 as “In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration’. In Sweden, this is included in the Aliens Act (2005:716). Chapter 1 Section 10 of this states: “In cases involving a child, particular attention must be given to what is required with regard to the child’s health and development and the best interests of the child in general”.

Chapter 5, Section 6 of the Aliens... (More)
One of the four fundamental principles of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of a Child is that of devotion to the best interests of the child. This is written in the UNCRC Article 3 as “In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration’. In Sweden, this is included in the Aliens Act (2005:716). Chapter 1 Section 10 of this states: “In cases involving a child, particular attention must be given to what is required with regard to the child’s health and development and the best interests of the child in general”.

Chapter 5, Section 6 of the Aliens Act (2005:716) states: “If a residence permit cannot be awarded on other grounds, a permit may be granted to an alien if on an overall assessment of the alien’s situation there are found to be such exceptionally distressing circumstances that he or she should be allowed to stay in Sweden. In making this assessment, particular attention shall be paid to the alien’s state of health, his or her adaptation to Sweden and his or her situation in the country of origin”. An additional section was adopted which emphasizes the principle of acting in the child’s best interests. This details that “Children may be granted residence permits under this Section even if the circumstances that come to light do not have the same seriousness and weight that is required for a permit to be granted to adults”.

This thesis examines the interpretations of the concept of acting in the best interest of the child and awarding residence permits within Swedish law to children, on grounds of exceptionally distressing circumstances. The aim is also to analyse if the concept of residence permits on grounds of exceptionally distressing circumstances is in accordance with the interpretations of the concept of the best interest of the child.

The best interests of the child has not been explicitly defined, neither in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, nor in the Swedish Aliens Act. Residence permits awarded on the grounds of exceptionally distressing circumstances are described in the preparatory works to the Act as a general ground. However, it is not defined when a situation would be classed as exceptionally distressing. When making his assessment, a judge’s decision shall be discretionary, each case is considered individually and the decision being made on the overall circumstances specific to each child.

For these reasons, it is up to the Swedish Migration Court of Appeal to develop the understanding of “the best interests of the child” and circumstances which would be classed as “exceptionally distressing”. Remarkably, however, this is something which they seem reluctant to do: in practice, courts do little more than adopt literal interpretations of the concepts used in the Act.

As a result of the way the article was drafted, there seems to be an expectation that the best interests of the child should be interpreted more restrictively. This was not however, the intended purpose of this legislation; it was written not to give more generous interpretation for children but instead purely to clarify the precise definition of these ‘best interests'.

The Swedish Migration Court of Appeal justifies its decisions by claiming that what is intermittently applied is simply an “exception rule”, something that must take place intermittently due to the very nature of the legislation. The purpose of clarifying the Aliens Act was not to create a more generous interpretation for children, but purely to make a more clear regulation, for which the results would be more predictable.

Sweden has agreed to be bound to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The introduction into Swedish law of the Aliens Act Chapter 1, Section 10 and Chapter 5, Section 6 has emphasized the level of focus on acting in the best interests of the child. It is regarded both nationally and on a wider level as politically and socially correct to do so. It could be argued, however, that the afore mentioned interests have a higher priority than the actual interests of the child. (Less)
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author
Bönner, Anna-Maria LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The best interests of the child and residence permits on grounds of exceptionally distressing circumstances
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Barnets bästa, Uppehållstillstånd på grund av synnerligen ömmande omständigheter., Folkrätt
language
Swedish
id
1746143
date added to LUP
2010-12-16 12:32:31
date last changed
2010-12-16 12:32:31
@misc{1746143,
  abstract     = {One of the four fundamental principles of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of a Child is that of devotion to the best interests of the child. This is written in the UNCRC Article 3 as “In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration’. In Sweden, this is included in the Aliens Act (2005:716). Chapter 1 Section 10 of this states: “In cases involving a child, particular attention must be given to what is required with regard to the child’s health and development and the best interests of the child in general”. 

Chapter 5, Section 6 of the Aliens Act (2005:716) states: “If a residence permit cannot be awarded on other grounds, a permit may be granted to an alien if on an overall assessment of the alien’s situation there are found to be such exceptionally distressing circumstances that he or she should be allowed to stay in Sweden. In making this assessment, particular attention shall be paid to the alien’s state of health, his or her adaptation to Sweden and his or her situation in the country of origin”. An additional section was adopted which emphasizes the principle of acting in the child’s best interests. This details that “Children may be granted residence permits under this Section even if the circumstances that come to light do not have the same seriousness and weight that is required for a permit to be granted to adults”.

This thesis examines the interpretations of the concept of acting in the best interest of the child and awarding residence permits within Swedish law to children, on grounds of exceptionally distressing circumstances. The aim is also to analyse if the concept of residence permits on grounds of exceptionally distressing circumstances is in accordance with the interpretations of the concept of the best interest of the child. 

The best interests of the child has not been explicitly defined, neither in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, nor in the Swedish Aliens Act. Residence permits awarded on the grounds of exceptionally distressing circumstances are described in the preparatory works to the Act as a general ground. However, it is not defined when a situation would be classed as exceptionally distressing. When making his assessment, a judge’s decision shall be discretionary, each case is considered individually and the decision being made on the overall circumstances specific to each child. 

For these reasons, it is up to the Swedish Migration Court of Appeal to develop the understanding of “the best interests of the child” and circumstances which would be classed as “exceptionally distressing”. Remarkably, however, this is something which they seem reluctant to do: in practice, courts do little more than adopt literal interpretations of the concepts used in the Act. 

As a result of the way the article was drafted, there seems to be an expectation that the best interests of the child should be interpreted more restrictively. This was not however, the intended purpose of this legislation; it was written not to give more generous interpretation for children but instead purely to clarify the precise definition of these ‘best interests'.

The Swedish Migration Court of Appeal justifies its decisions by claiming that what is intermittently applied is simply an “exception rule”, something that must take place intermittently due to the very nature of the legislation. The purpose of clarifying the Aliens Act was not to create a more generous interpretation for children, but purely to make a more clear regulation, for which the results would be more predictable. 

Sweden has agreed to be bound to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The introduction into Swedish law of the Aliens Act Chapter 1, Section 10 and Chapter 5, Section 6 has emphasized the level of focus on acting in the best interests of the child. It is regarded both nationally and on a wider level as politically and socially correct to do so. It could be argued, however, that the afore mentioned interests have a higher priority than the actual interests of the child.},
  author       = {Bönner, Anna-Maria},
  keyword      = {Barnets bästa,Uppehållstillstånd på grund av synnerligen ömmande omständigheter.,Folkrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Barnets bästa och uppehållstillstånd på grund av synnerligen ömmande omständigheter},
  year         = {2010},
}