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Verkan av passivitet vid avtals ingående

Stille, Max LU (2010) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract
The purpose of this essay is to investigate the possibilities of entering into a binding agreement despite the passivity of one of the parties. The term passivity is used to denote the lack of action when a party, during a process with the apparent aim of entering into an agreement, typically can be expected to act through a declaration of intent, a refusal or a clarification.

Before a closer enquiry on the effects of passivity is made, the legal founda¬tion for the following reasoning is presented: the basic model of contract formation in the AvtL and the considerations behind this model. A short presentation of the most commonly used alternative models of contract formation is also made.

Next the term passivity is introduced –... (More)
The purpose of this essay is to investigate the possibilities of entering into a binding agreement despite the passivity of one of the parties. The term passivity is used to denote the lack of action when a party, during a process with the apparent aim of entering into an agreement, typically can be expected to act through a declaration of intent, a refusal or a clarification.

Before a closer enquiry on the effects of passivity is made, the legal founda¬tion for the following reasoning is presented: the basic model of contract formation in the AvtL and the considerations behind this model. A short presentation of the most commonly used alternative models of contract formation is also made.

Next the term passivity is introduced – what is its legal-technical meaning? Passivity is found to be considered an “objective expression” which gets legal effects through purely objective requisites, in contrast with true declarations of intent (which also can be expressed through passivity). A distinction is also made between material and procedural effects of passivity. Material effect means that a binding agreement is considered being in effect due to the purely objective action of the passive party, procedural effect means that the evidential burden is shifted to the passive part, who has to show that no contract has been entered into. The chapter ends with a presentation of the rules on passivity effects that are expressed in different laws.

The main part of the essay is commenced with a presentation of the opinions found in legal writing considering a “pure” passivity model. Thereafter the account is extended to more limited situations in which “pure” passivity can have possible effects, and models were passivity can be given effects in combination with other factors such as elicitation of offers, prior actions between the parties, customs and concludent action. Ending the chapter is a presentation of the most relevant judgements from the higher Swedish courts. In the next chapter a special question is considered: what effect does the passivity of a party towards a confirmation of agreement have? First the opinions in legal writing prior to the important judgement in NJA 2006 s. 638, as well as the most relevant prior case law, are examined. Then NJA 2006 s. 638 and the expressed opinions on this case are presented in detail.

In the final chapter an attempt is made to, as far as possible, draw conclusions about the current legal situation concerning the effects of passivity. Most importantly it is concluded that no “pure” passivity rule exists in Swedish law, that passivity in combination with the above mentioned additional factors can lead to a binding agreement if the subjective requisites in 6 § (2) AvtL are filled, and that passivity towards a confirmation of agreement normally shifts the evidential burden to the passive party. Finally the rationality of the legal situation as presented is discussed, as well as possible alternative regulations. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Uppsatsens syfte är att utreda vilka möjligheter det finns att ingå ett avtal trots parts passivitet. Begreppet passivitet används i betydelsen underlåtenhet att agera när part, under en process till synes syftande till att avtal ska ingås, normalt kan förväntas agera genom en positiv viljeförklaring, ett nekande eller ett förtydligande.

Innan passivitetsfrågan behandlas närmare presenteras den rättsliga grunden för de kommande resonemangen: avtalslagens grundmodell för ingående av avtal och de rättspolitiska grunder denna bygger på. Dessutom görs en kort genomgång av de vanligaste alternativa formerna för ingående av avtal.

Härefter introduceras passivitetsbegreppet – vad är passiviteten i juridisk mening? Svaret, som blir... (More)
Uppsatsens syfte är att utreda vilka möjligheter det finns att ingå ett avtal trots parts passivitet. Begreppet passivitet används i betydelsen underlåtenhet att agera när part, under en process till synes syftande till att avtal ska ingås, normalt kan förväntas agera genom en positiv viljeförklaring, ett nekande eller ett förtydligande.

Innan passivitetsfrågan behandlas närmare presenteras den rättsliga grunden för de kommande resonemangen: avtalslagens grundmodell för ingående av avtal och de rättspolitiska grunder denna bygger på. Dessutom görs en kort genomgång av de vanligaste alternativa formerna för ingående av avtal.

Härefter introduceras passivitetsbegreppet – vad är passiviteten i juridisk mening? Svaret, som blir utgångspunkt för den fortsatta framställningen, är att passiviteten kan ses som ett ”objektivt uttryck” som får rättsverkningar på rent objektiva grun¬der, till skillnad från faktiska viljeförklaringar (vilka också kan uttryckas genom passivitet). Dessutom görs en distinktion mellan materiella och processuella passivitetsverkningar. Materiell passivitetsverkan innebär att avtal anses ingånget p.g.a. parts objektiva agerande (s.k. avtalsverkan), processuell verkan innebär istället en bevisbördeförskjutning så att den passive måste visa att avtal inte ingåtts (s.k. presumtionsverkan). Kapitlet avslutas med en genomgång av lagregler rörande passivitetsverkan.

I uppsatsens huvuddel presenteras först de diskussioner som förts i doktri¬nen om en tänkbar ”ren” passivitetsmodell. Framställningen utvidgas däref¬ter till att omfatta mer begränsade situationer då ren passivitetsverkan kan aktualiseras, samt modeller för verkan av passivitet i kombination med andra faktorer såsom framkallande av anbud, partsbruk, sedvänja och konkludent handlande. Därefter görs en genomgång av de för ämnet mest intressanta avgörandena från HD och hovrätterna. En särskild fråga har lyfts ut ur detta kapitel och behandlas för sig i det efterföljande: vilken verkan får parts passivitet gentemot avtalsbekräftelser? Detta kapitel är upplagt så att först presenteras uppfattningar ur doktrinen angående rättsläget innan HD:s betydelsefulla avgörande i NJA 2006 s. 638, samt relevant praxis från tiden innan denna dom. Därefter görs en ingående genomgång av nämnda avgörande, och de åsikter som uttryckts i doktrinen kring detta presenteras.

I det avslutande kapitlet görs ett försök att, på grundval av det ovan presenterade materialet, fastställa rättsläget så långt möjligt. De viktigaste slutsatserna som dras är att någon ”ren” passivitetsregel inte existerar inom svensk rätt, att passivitet i kombination med de ovannämnda faktorerna kan få avtalsverkan om de dubbla subjektiva rekvisiten i 6 § 2 st. AvtL är uppfyllda, samt att parts passivitet vid mottagande av avtalsbekräftelse i normalfallet medför presumtionsverkan. Slutligen diskuteras huruvida det sålunda fastställda rättsläget framstår som rimligt, samt om det finns lämpligare alternativ – främst till de dubbla subjektiva rekvisiten i 6 § 2 st. AvtL. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Stille, Max LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The effects of passivity during the process of contract formation
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Avtalsrätt, Civilrätt, Förmögenhetsrätt, Passivitet, Avtalsbekräftelse
language
Swedish
id
1746845
date added to LUP
2010-12-20 11:53:46
date last changed
2010-12-20 11:53:46
@misc{1746845,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this essay is to investigate the possibilities of entering into a binding agreement despite the passivity of one of the parties. The term passivity is used to denote the lack of action when a party, during a process with the apparent aim of entering into an agreement, typically can be expected to act through a declaration of intent, a refusal or a clarification.   

Before a closer enquiry on the effects of passivity is made, the legal founda¬tion for the following reasoning is presented: the basic model of contract formation in the AvtL and the considerations behind this model. A short presentation of the most commonly used alternative models of contract formation is also made.  

Next the term passivity is introduced – what is its legal-technical meaning? Passivity is found to be considered an “objective expression” which gets legal effects through purely objective requisites, in contrast with true declarations of intent (which also can be expressed through passivity). A distinction is also made between material and procedural effects of passivity. Material effect means that a binding agreement is considered being in effect due to the purely objective action of the passive party, procedural effect means that the evidential burden is shifted to the passive part, who has to show that no contract has been entered into. The chapter ends with a presentation of the rules on passivity effects that are expressed in different laws.    

The main part of the essay is commenced with a presentation of the opinions found in legal writing considering a “pure” passivity model. Thereafter the account is extended to more limited situations in which “pure” passivity can have possible effects, and models were passivity can be given effects in combination with other factors such as elicitation of offers, prior actions between the parties, customs and concludent action. Ending the chapter is a presentation of the most relevant judgements from the higher Swedish courts.  In the next chapter a special question is considered: what effect does the passivity of a party towards a confirmation of agreement have? First the opinions in legal writing prior to the important judgement in NJA 2006 s. 638, as well as the most relevant prior case law, are examined. Then NJA 2006 s. 638 and the expressed opinions on this case are presented in detail.     

In the final chapter an attempt is made to, as far as possible, draw conclusions about the current legal situation concerning the effects of passivity. Most importantly it is concluded that no “pure” passivity rule exists in Swedish law, that passivity in combination with the above mentioned additional factors can lead to a binding agreement if the subjective requisites in 6 § (2) AvtL are filled, and that passivity towards a confirmation of agreement normally shifts the evidential burden to the passive party. Finally the rationality of the legal situation as presented is discussed, as well as possible alternative regulations.},
  author       = {Stille, Max},
  keyword      = {Avtalsrätt,Civilrätt,Förmögenhetsrätt,Passivitet,Avtalsbekräftelse},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Verkan av passivitet vid avtals ingående},
  year         = {2010},
}