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Integrationsklausulen - Rättsverkan och funktion i svensk och angloamerikansk rätt

Nilsson, Jenny LU (2010) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den mest kännetecknande aspekten av avtalsrätten är dess långtgående avtalsfrihet, vilken möjliggör att kommersiella avtal kan influeras av hur avtal konstrueras inom andra rättssystem. I avtalsrätten syns denna utveckling tydligt i och med förekomsten av boilerplate klausuler i kommersiella avtal. En av dessa klausuler är integrationsklausulen.

Den vedertagna uppfattningen om innebörden av en integrationsklausul är att den syftar till att eliminera, eller åtminstone minska betydelsen av muntliga och skriftliga uttalanden, åtaganden och dylikt. Avsikten är att eliminera allt som eventuellt kan påverka innehållet i det skrivna avtalet, så att avtalet utgör parternas fullständiga överenskommelse. Genom att uppfylla detta syfte fyller... (More)
Den mest kännetecknande aspekten av avtalsrätten är dess långtgående avtalsfrihet, vilken möjliggör att kommersiella avtal kan influeras av hur avtal konstrueras inom andra rättssystem. I avtalsrätten syns denna utveckling tydligt i och med förekomsten av boilerplate klausuler i kommersiella avtal. En av dessa klausuler är integrationsklausulen.

Den vedertagna uppfattningen om innebörden av en integrationsklausul är att den syftar till att eliminera, eller åtminstone minska betydelsen av muntliga och skriftliga uttalanden, åtaganden och dylikt. Avsikten är att eliminera allt som eventuellt kan påverka innehållet i det skrivna avtalet, så att avtalet utgör parternas fullständiga överenskommelse. Genom att uppfylla detta syfte fyller integrationsklausulen flera funktioner, men främst att skapa större säkerhet för parterna i deras affärsrelation. En integrationsklausul är med andra ord ett sätt att hantera risker.

Med angloamerikansk rätt som förebild har integrationsklausulens användning ökat i svenska avtal. Användningen av en klausul som härstammar från främmade rättsystem väcker frågor om hur klausulen fungerar i svensk rätt. För att på bästa sätt bygga upp en förståelse om integrationsklausulens rättsverkan, ses det till hur svensk och angloamerikansk rätt hanterar frågor kring klausulen. De områden som särskilt påverkar integrationsklausulens rättsverkan är avtalstolkning, bevisvärdering samt grundprinciper inom avtalsrätten som avtalsfrihet och avtalsbundenhet. Inom angloamerikansk rätt är the parol evidence rule särskilt intressant för integrationsklausulens verkan. Behandlingen av kringliggande rättsområden som påverkar integrationsklausulens rättsverkan aktualiserar diskussioner om vad som värderas högst i svensk och angloamerikansk rätt, avtalsfrihet eller bevisregler och konsensualism eller formalism. Dessutom tydliggör redogörelsen av avtalstolkning och avtalsrättsliga principer vilken rättsverkan integrationsklausulen får bedömas ha samt vilken funktion som rättsverkan stödjer.

I förhållande till avvägningen mellan avtalsfrihet och bevisregler har svensk och angloamerikansk rätt prioriterat olika. Både svensk och angloamerikansk rätt har regler om bevishantering, men regleringen går inte i samma riktning. När den svenska rätten förhåller sig tillåtande utesluter istället angloamerikansk rätt vissa former av bevisning. Sammantaget visar de områden som diskuterats att svensk rätt är mer inriktad mot konsensualism, genom att värdera parternas avsikt högt, medan amerikansk och engelsk rätt är mer formalistisk, då de lägger stort värde i det skrivna avtalet. Genom denna klassificering av rättsystemen förenklas förståelsen av hur integrationsklausulen kan få rättsverkan och vad rättsverkan innebär. (Less)
Abstract
The most characteristic aspect of Contract Law is its far-reaching freedom of contract, which makes it possible for commercial agreements to have an influence on how contracts are construed within other legal systems. In Contract Law this development is apparent with the use of boilerplate clauses in commercial agreements. One of these clauses is the integration clause.

The recognized understanding of the meaning of an integration clause is that it aims to eliminate, or at least reduce the importance of oral and written statements, agreements and such. The intention is to eliminate everything that possibly could have an influence on the content of the written agreement, so that the contract constitutes the parties complete agreement. By... (More)
The most characteristic aspect of Contract Law is its far-reaching freedom of contract, which makes it possible for commercial agreements to have an influence on how contracts are construed within other legal systems. In Contract Law this development is apparent with the use of boilerplate clauses in commercial agreements. One of these clauses is the integration clause.

The recognized understanding of the meaning of an integration clause is that it aims to eliminate, or at least reduce the importance of oral and written statements, agreements and such. The intention is to eliminate everything that possibly could have an influence on the content of the written agreement, so that the contract constitutes the parties complete agreement. By achieving this purpose the integration clause serves several functions, but mostly to create a greater certainty for the parties in their commercial relationship. An integration clause is in other words a way of managing risks.

With Anglo-American Law as a role model the use of integration clauses has increased in Swedish contracts. The use of a clause from a foreign legal system awakens questions about how the clause will work in Swedish Law. For the best way to build an understanding about the integration clauses legal effect, the Swedish and the Anglo-American Law will be observed in how they handle questions related to the clause. Those areas that particularly have an influence on integration clauses legal effect is contract interpretation, valuation of evidence and basic principles of Contract Law as freedom of contract and a contracts binding effect. Within Anglo-American Law the parol evidence rule is particularly interesting for the legal effect of integration clauses. The description of surrounding branches of law that influence the legal effect of the integration clause makes a discussion relevant about what is most valued in Swedish and Anglo-American Law, freedom of contract or regulation on which evidence is allowed and consensualism or formalism. Furthermore the discussion on interpretation of contracts and principles of Contract Law clarifies which legal effect the integration clause have and what function that effect supports.

In relation to balance between freedom of contract and regulation of what evidence to admit Swedish and Anglo-American Law has prioritised differently. Both Swedish and Anglo-American Law have rules about how to handle evidence, but the regulation does not go in the same direction. When the Swedish Law admits evidence, the Anglo-American instead excludes certain types of evidence. Altogether the areas that have been discussed show that Swedish law is more aimed at consensualism, by valuing the parties intention highly, while American and English Law is more formalistic, by putting a high value on the written agreement. Through this classification of the legal systems the understanding of how integration clauses can have legal effect and what the legal effect mean is simplified. (Less)
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author
Nilsson, Jenny LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Integration clause - Legal effect and function in Swedish and Anglo-American Law
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Avtalsrätt
language
Swedish
id
1753925
date added to LUP
2011-01-10 16:12:02
date last changed
2017-01-27 15:52:47
@misc{1753925,
  abstract     = {The most characteristic aspect of Contract Law is its far-reaching freedom of contract, which makes it possible for commercial agreements to have an influence on how contracts are construed within other legal systems. In Contract Law this development is apparent with the use of boilerplate clauses in commercial agreements. One of these clauses is the integration clause.

The recognized understanding of the meaning of an integration clause is that it aims to eliminate, or at least reduce the importance of oral and written statements, agreements and such. The intention is to eliminate everything that possibly could have an influence on the content of the written agreement, so that the contract constitutes the parties complete agreement. By achieving this purpose the integration clause serves several functions, but mostly to create a greater certainty for the parties in their commercial relationship. An integration clause is in other words a way of managing risks. 

With Anglo-American Law as a role model the use of integration clauses has increased in Swedish contracts. The use of a clause from a foreign legal system awakens questions about how the clause will work in Swedish Law. For the best way to build an understanding about the integration clauses legal effect, the Swedish and the Anglo-American Law will be observed in how they handle questions related to the clause. Those areas that particularly have an influence on integration clauses legal effect is contract interpretation, valuation of evidence and basic principles of Contract Law as freedom of contract and a contracts binding effect. Within Anglo-American Law the parol evidence rule is particularly interesting for the legal effect of integration clauses. The description of surrounding branches of law that influence the legal effect of the integration clause makes a discussion relevant about what is most valued in Swedish and Anglo-American Law, freedom of contract or regulation on which evidence is allowed and consensualism or formalism. Furthermore the discussion on interpretation of contracts and principles of Contract Law clarifies which legal effect the integration clause have and what function that effect supports. 

In relation to balance between freedom of contract and regulation of what evidence to admit Swedish and Anglo-American Law has prioritised differently. Both Swedish and Anglo-American Law have rules about how to handle evidence, but the regulation does not go in the same direction. When the Swedish Law admits evidence, the Anglo-American instead excludes certain types of evidence. Altogether the areas that have been discussed show that Swedish law is more aimed at consensualism, by valuing the parties intention highly, while American and English Law is more formalistic, by putting a high value on the written agreement. Through this classification of the legal systems the understanding of how integration clauses can have legal effect and what the legal effect mean is simplified.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Jenny},
  keyword      = {Avtalsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Integrationsklausulen - Rättsverkan och funktion i svensk och angloamerikansk rätt},
  year         = {2010},
}