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The Classification System for Surface Lining Materials used in Buildings in Europe and Japan

Hedskog, Björn and Ryber, Fredrik (1998)
Division of Fire Safety Engineering
Fire Protection Engineering 3,5 years
Division of Risk Management and Societal Safety
Abstract
This report summarizes the classification systems for surface lining materials in Europe and Japan. There is also a part including a discussion on differences, similarities and possible ways to link the two different systems together.

In June 1994, an important agreement was made between the member countries in the European Community. The agreement stated that all member countries should have the same test procedures and the same lassification system for surface lining materials used in buildings. In September 1998, the final decision was taken. The classification system will be based on the FIre Growth RAte (FIGRA) index, which is calculated using the parameters from the main test method, the Single Burning Item
(SBI) test. This... (More)
This report summarizes the classification systems for surface lining materials in Europe and Japan. There is also a part including a discussion on differences, similarities and possible ways to link the two different systems together.

In June 1994, an important agreement was made between the member countries in the European Community. The agreement stated that all member countries should have the same test procedures and the same lassification system for surface lining materials used in buildings. In September 1998, the final decision was taken. The classification system will be based on the FIre Growth RAte (FIGRA) index, which is calculated using the parameters from the main test method, the Single Burning Item
(SBI) test. This FIGRA index has been shown to correlate well with the FIGRA index calculated for the reference scenario, the Room/Corner test (ISO 9705). In addition to the SBI test also the Non-combustibility test (ISO 1182), the Gross calorific value test (ISO 1716) and the Ignitability test (ISO 11925-2) are used for the classification. In
total 10 different parameters will be used to specify the seven Euroclasses (A1, A2, B, C, D, E and F). Materials in Euroclass A1 to B do not reach flashover during the Room/Corner test while materials in Euroclass C reach flashover after 10 minutes of testing and materials in Euroclass D to F reach flashover during the first 10 minutes of testing.

Today the classification system in Japan is based on five different test methods that are not ISO standards. By using these five test methods the materials are divided into three classes. These classes represent the non-combustible, quasi non-combustible and the fire retardant materials. The test methods and classification system today do not allow a performance based approach. Therefore, there is ongoing work with the aim to
develop new regulations, test methods and a new classification system, which will allow this. Today there are only two final decisions taken. The first states that the classification will be based on the heat release in the Room/Corner test, which will be the reference scenario, and that the main test procedure will be the Cone Calorimeter test (ISO 5660). The second states that the regulations will allow three different routes for design, route A, B and C. Route A will be a prescriptive approach which will use the classification given by law, while route B and C will allow a performance based approach. For the prescriptive approach there are a number of proposal for class limits, but the most probable proposal includes three different classes. Materials in Class 1 do not reach flashover in the Room/Corner test while materials in Class 2
reach flashover after 10 minutes of testing and materials in Class 3 each flashover during the first 10 minutes of testing. To open the possibilities for trade with surface lining materials, between Europe and
Japan, a comparison and a first attempt to link the two systems together has been made. The conclusion from this work is that there is a strong direct link between the Euroclasses and the proposed Japanese system based on the heat release in the Room/Corner test, but it is difficult to find a complete link when all parameters are considered, even with the use of calculation models. The only way to use materials from Japan in Europe, and vice versa, might be through a performance based approach
with performance based design criterion or through a political solution. Therefore, it was also found strange that there is no test method, such as the Cone Calorimeter, that 4 provides input data to state-of-the-art fire models included among the test methods that will be used in Europe. (Less)
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author
Hedskog, Björn and Ryber, Fredrik
supervisor
organization
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
SMOGRA, FIGRA, Cone Calorimeter test, Room/Corner test, Fire testing, Surface lining materials, Classification, performance based design, engineering approach
report number
5023
ISSN
1402-3504
language
English
id
1767106
date added to LUP
2011-01-26 11:18:59
date last changed
2014-03-10 10:40:36
@misc{1767106,
  abstract     = {This report summarizes the classification systems for surface lining materials in Europe and Japan. There is also a part including a discussion on differences, similarities and possible ways to link the two different systems together.

In June 1994, an important agreement was made between the member countries in the European Community. The agreement stated that all member countries should have the same test procedures and the same  lassification system for surface lining materials used in buildings. In September 1998, the final decision was taken. The classification system will be based on the FIre Growth RAte (FIGRA) index, which is calculated using the parameters from the main test method, the Single Burning Item
(SBI) test. This FIGRA index has been shown to correlate well with the FIGRA index calculated for the reference scenario, the Room/Corner test (ISO 9705). In addition to the SBI test also the Non-combustibility test (ISO 1182), the Gross calorific value test (ISO 1716) and the Ignitability test (ISO 11925-2) are used for the classification. In
total 10 different parameters will be used to specify the seven Euroclasses (A1, A2, B, C, D, E and F). Materials in Euroclass A1 to B do not reach flashover during the Room/Corner test while materials in Euroclass C reach flashover after 10 minutes of testing and materials in Euroclass D to F reach flashover during the first 10 minutes of testing.

Today the classification system in Japan is based on five different test methods that are not ISO standards. By using these five test methods the materials are divided into three classes. These classes represent the non-combustible, quasi non-combustible and the fire retardant materials. The test methods and classification system today do not allow a performance based approach. Therefore, there is ongoing work with the aim to
develop new regulations, test methods and a new classification system, which will allow this. Today there are only two final decisions taken. The first states that the classification will be based on the heat release in the Room/Corner test, which will be the reference scenario, and that the main test procedure will be the Cone Calorimeter test (ISO 5660). The second states that the regulations will allow three different routes for design, route A, B and C. Route A will be a prescriptive approach which will use the classification given by law, while route B and C will allow a performance based approach. For the prescriptive approach there are a number of proposal for class limits, but the most probable proposal includes three different classes. Materials in Class 1 do not reach flashover in the Room/Corner test while materials in Class 2
reach flashover after 10 minutes of testing and materials in Class 3  each flashover during the first 10 minutes of testing. To open the possibilities for trade with surface lining materials, between Europe and
Japan, a comparison and a first attempt to link the two systems together has been made. The conclusion from this work is that there is a strong direct link between the Euroclasses and the proposed Japanese system based on the heat release in the Room/Corner test, but it is difficult to find a complete link when all parameters are considered, even with the use of calculation models. The only way to use materials from Japan in Europe, and vice versa, might be through a performance based approach
with performance based design criterion or through a political solution. Therefore, it was also found strange that there is no test method, such as the Cone Calorimeter, that 4 provides input data to state-of-the-art fire models included among the test methods that will be used in Europe.},
  author       = {Hedskog, Björn and Ryber, Fredrik},
  issn         = {1402-3504},
  keyword      = {SMOGRA,FIGRA,Cone Calorimeter test,Room/Corner test,Fire testing,Surface lining materials,Classification,performance based design,engineering approach},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {The Classification System for Surface Lining Materials used in Buildings in Europe and Japan},
  year         = {1998},
}