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Studies of removal of 210Po, 234U, 238U and 137Cs in man by dialysis

Baureus Koch, Catrin (2001)
Medical Physics Programme
Abstract
High internal radiation doses can result from food, contaminated by radionuclides from for example nuclear fallout. Nuclides with long half-lifes can accumulate in the body and give a high time-integrated absorbed dose. Persons with end-stage renal disease can receive high absorbed doses after intake of radionuclides, since many radionuclides are mainly excreted by the kidneys. In this study the dialysis affection of the excretion of radionuclides was investigated.The activities of 210Po, 234U, 238U and 137Cs in the dialysates from eight dialysis patients were measured using solid state silicon detectors and coaxial semiconductor Ge(Li)-detectors after coprecipitation with manganese dioxide (234U, 238U and 210Po) and copper ferrocyanide... (More)
High internal radiation doses can result from food, contaminated by radionuclides from for example nuclear fallout. Nuclides with long half-lifes can accumulate in the body and give a high time-integrated absorbed dose. Persons with end-stage renal disease can receive high absorbed doses after intake of radionuclides, since many radionuclides are mainly excreted by the kidneys. In this study the dialysis affection of the excretion of radionuclides was investigated.The activities of 210Po, 234U, 238U and 137Cs in the dialysates from eight dialysis patients were measured using solid state silicon detectors and coaxial semiconductor Ge(Li)-detectors after coprecipitation with manganese dioxide (234U, 238U and 210Po) and copper ferrocyanide (137Cs). Portions of reindeer meat contaminated with 52+/-1 Bq of 137Cs/kg were given to two dialysis patients in order to estimate the retention.Very low activities of 234U and 238U were found in the fluids and filters used in the dialysis treatment and dialysates of the patients. Some hundreds of mBq of 210Po was found in the fluids used in the dialysis treatment - higher than the activities of 210Po found in the dialysates and used filters of the dialysis patients. This could mean there is an uploading of 210Po in the body. The activities of 137Cs found in the distilled water, tap water and dialysis fluids correspond only to a part of the activities found in the dialysates, indicating a reduction of 137Cs in the blood-pool of the patients during dialysis. The dialysis excretion of 137Cs in this study was 0.54+/-0.22 Bq/48 h (mean+/-SD). A reference group with normal 137Cs urine excretion showed a 137Cs urine excretion of 0.5-1 Bq/24 h [Falk et al., 1991. Cesium in the Swedish Population after Chernobyl : Internal Radiation, Whole body counting. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, pp. 547-577]. In this study we managed to deminish the effective half-life of 137Cs by 90% compared with (T1/2)eff for an ICRP standard man [International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1979. Limits for intake of radionuclides by workers. Oxford: Pergamon Press; ICRP Publication 30] and thereby lower the absorbed dose to the patient. The calculated residence time for 137Cs in the patients in this study was considerably shorter than for the ICRP standard man - a reduction of 90%. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Mat som kontaminerats av radionuklider genom till exempel radioaktivt nedfall kan ge höga stråldoser till kroppen. Nuklider med långa halveringstider kan ackumuleras i kroppen och ge en hög tidsintegrerad absorberad dos. Personer med kronisk njursvikt kan erhålla höga stråldoser efter intag av radionuklider eftersom många radionuklider utsöndras via njurarna. I den här undersökningen har vi studerat hur man med hjälp av dialys kan påskynda utsöndringen av radionuklider och därmed reducera stråldosen till patienten. Aktiviteter av 210Po, 234U, 238U och 137Cs i dialysaten från åtta dialyspatienter uppmättes med ytbarriär- och halvledardetektorer efter utfällningar med mangandioxid (234U, 238U and 210Po) och kopparferrocyanid 1 Bq 137Cs/kg,... (More)
Mat som kontaminerats av radionuklider genom till exempel radioaktivt nedfall kan ge höga stråldoser till kroppen. Nuklider med långa halveringstider kan ackumuleras i kroppen och ge en hög tidsintegrerad absorberad dos. Personer med kronisk njursvikt kan erhålla höga stråldoser efter intag av radionuklider eftersom många radionuklider utsöndras via njurarna. I den här undersökningen har vi studerat hur man med hjälp av dialys kan påskynda utsöndringen av radionuklider och därmed reducera stråldosen till patienten. Aktiviteter av 210Po, 234U, 238U och 137Cs i dialysaten från åtta dialyspatienter uppmättes med ytbarriär- och halvledardetektorer efter utfällningar med mangandioxid (234U, 238U and 210Po) och kopparferrocyanid 1 Bq 137Cs/kg, gavs till två±(137Cs). Renkött, kontaminerad med 52 dialyspatienter för att uppskatta dialysens påverkan av retentionen. Mycket låga aktiviteter av 234U and 238U återfanns i de vätskor och filter som användes i dialysbehandlingar och i patienternas dialysat. Ett hundratal mBq 210Po uppmättes i de vätskor som används i dialysbehandlingen – högre än de 210Po-aktiviteter som uppmättes i dialysaten och filtren. Detta kan innebära att det sker en uppladdning av 210Po i kroppen. De aktiviteter av 137Cs som uppmättes i det destillerade vattnet, kranvattnet och dialysvätskorna svarar endast för en liten del av de aktiviteter som uppmättes i dialysaten vilket pekar på en reduktion av 137Cs i patienternas blod-poolen under dialys. Utsöndringen av 137Cs genom dialys var 0,54+/-0,22 Bq/48 h (mean+/-SD) i denna studie. En referens grupp med normal urinutsöndring visade en 137Csutsöndring genom urinet på 0,5-1 Bq/24 h [Falk et al., 1991. Cesium in the Swedish Population after Chernobyl : Internal Radiation, Whole body counting. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, pp. 547-577]. I denna studie har vi lyckats minska den effektiva halveringstiden för 137Cs med 90% jämfört med (T1/2)eff för en ICRP standard man [International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1979. Limits for intake of radionuclides by workers. Oxford: Pergamon Press; ICRP Publication 30] och därmed lyckats minska stråldosen till patienten. Vidare är den beräknade medeluppehållstiden av 137Cs hos patienterna betydligt kortare än den i ICRP standard mannen, närmare bestämt 10% av medeluppehållstiden i ICRP standard mannen. Denna metod visar sig vara en effektiv metod att avlägsna åtminstone 137Cs från blod-poolen. (Less)
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author
Baureus Koch, Catrin
supervisor
organization
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Radioekologi
language
English
id
2156884
date added to LUP
2011-09-13 11:31:54
date last changed
2011-12-06 14:16:07
@misc{2156884,
  abstract     = {High internal radiation doses can result from food, contaminated by radionuclides from for example nuclear fallout. Nuclides with long half-lifes can accumulate in the body and give a high time-integrated absorbed dose. Persons with end-stage renal disease can receive high absorbed doses after intake of radionuclides, since many radionuclides are mainly excreted by the kidneys. In this study the dialysis affection of the excretion of radionuclides was investigated.The activities of 210Po, 234U, 238U and 137Cs in the dialysates from eight dialysis patients were measured using solid state silicon detectors and coaxial semiconductor Ge(Li)-detectors after coprecipitation with manganese dioxide (234U, 238U and 210Po) and copper ferrocyanide (137Cs). Portions of reindeer meat contaminated with 52+/-1 Bq of 137Cs/kg were given to two dialysis patients in order to estimate the retention.Very low activities of 234U and 238U were found in the fluids and filters used in the dialysis treatment and dialysates of the patients. Some hundreds of mBq of 210Po was found in the fluids used in the dialysis treatment - higher than the activities of 210Po found in the dialysates and used filters of the dialysis patients. This could mean there is an uploading of 210Po in the body. The activities of 137Cs found in the distilled water, tap water and dialysis fluids correspond only to a part of the activities found in the dialysates, indicating a reduction of 137Cs in the blood-pool of the patients during dialysis. The dialysis excretion of 137Cs in this study was 0.54+/-0.22 Bq/48 h (mean+/-SD). A reference group with normal 137Cs urine excretion showed a 137Cs urine excretion of 0.5-1 Bq/24 h [Falk et al., 1991. Cesium in the Swedish Population after Chernobyl : Internal Radiation, Whole body counting. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, pp. 547-577]. In this study we managed to deminish the effective half-life of 137Cs by 90% compared with (T1/2)eff for an ICRP standard man [International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1979. Limits for intake of radionuclides by workers. Oxford: Pergamon Press; ICRP Publication 30] and thereby lower the absorbed dose to the patient. The calculated residence time for 137Cs in the patients in this study was considerably shorter than for the ICRP standard man - a reduction of 90%.},
  author       = {Baureus Koch, Catrin},
  keyword      = {Radioekologi},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Studies of removal of 210Po, 234U, 238U and 137Cs in man by dialysis},
  year         = {2001},
}