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Psykisk störning som förmildrande omständighet - Tillämpningen av 29 kap. 3 § 1 st. 2p.

Nilsson, Jonas LU (2012) JURM02 20112
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats syftar till att utreda hur och när bestämmelsen om psykisk störning som förmildrande omständighet – 29 kap. 3 § 1 st. 2 p. BrB – tillämpas. Uppsatsen utgår huvudsakligen ifrån en rättsfallsundersökning omfattande 24 avgöranden från tidsperioden 2007-2011.

För att ge en heltäckande bild av bestämmelsen redogörs i avsnitt tre till fem för hur psykiskt störda har behandlats av rättsväsendet genom tiderna, vilka principer och rättspolitiska hänsyn som ligger till grund för denna särbehandling, respektive hur rättsläget ser ut idag. Avsnitt sex upptas av utförliga referat med kommentarer av de undersökta rättsfallen. I avsnitt sju och åtta sammanställs resultatet från denna undersökning och en diskussion förs angående de... (More)
Denna uppsats syftar till att utreda hur och när bestämmelsen om psykisk störning som förmildrande omständighet – 29 kap. 3 § 1 st. 2 p. BrB – tillämpas. Uppsatsen utgår huvudsakligen ifrån en rättsfallsundersökning omfattande 24 avgöranden från tidsperioden 2007-2011.

För att ge en heltäckande bild av bestämmelsen redogörs i avsnitt tre till fem för hur psykiskt störda har behandlats av rättsväsendet genom tiderna, vilka principer och rättspolitiska hänsyn som ligger till grund för denna särbehandling, respektive hur rättsläget ser ut idag. Avsnitt sex upptas av utförliga referat med kommentarer av de undersökta rättsfallen. I avsnitt sju och åtta sammanställs resultatet från denna undersökning och en diskussion förs angående de problem som har uppkommit med denna bestämmelse.

Bestämmelser om psykisk störning som förmildrande omständighet har funnits medtagna i brottsbalken sedan dess tillkomst men, psykiskt störda har intagit en särställning i det svenska straffrättssystemet under en avsevärt längre tid tillbaka. Den aktuella bestämmelsen har under de senaste åren sällan tillämpats av domstolarna. Anledningen till detta torde vara att bestämmelsen tidigare innehöll kvalificerande rekvisit, vilka innebar att den tilltalades tillstånd endast kunde beaktas i mildrande riktning om detta starkt hade inverkat på dennes handlande vid gärningstillfället. Sällsyntheten med vilken bestämmelsen åberopades av domstolarna kan sägas ha lett till att det inte utvecklats några klara riktlinjer i praxis för hur den bör tillämpas. En reform som trädde i kraft den 1 juli 2010 medförde att de kvalificerande rekvisiten i 29 kap. 3 § slopades. Detta innebär att bestämmelsens tillämpningsområde har utvidgats markant. Med hänsyn till bristen på tydliga riktlinjer i praxis kan detta komma att innebära bristande koherens i domstolarnas tillämpning - och som en konsekvens därav – bristande rättssäkerhet.

Denna slutsats stöds till viss del av den i uppsatsen gjorda rättsfallsundersökningen. Dock har det gått att skönja vissa mönster gemensamma för de flesta avgörandena, exempelvis att domstolarna har varit relativt konservativa med att reducera straff när den tilltalades tillstånd har varit av svårdefinierad karaktär eller av icke-allvarlig art.

Med grund i rättsfallsundersökningen och slutsatserna som kan dras av denna utfärdas i avsnitt 7 ett antal riktlinjer angående hur paragrafen bör tillämpas. Dessa riktlinjer berör huvudsakligen frågan om vilken storlek en eventuell straffreduktion bör ha i olika fall där psykisk störning kan vara aktuell att beakta som förmildrande omständighet. Förhoppningen är att dessa riktlinjer kan ge en viss vägledning i hur paragrafen kan tillämpas till dess att Högsta domstolen behandlar frågan på ett utförligt sätt. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis aims at investigating how and when the provision in the Swedish penal code regarding mental illness as a mitigating circumstance is applicable. The thesis is centered on a case study comprising 24 rulings from the time period 2007 - 2011.

Sections 3 and 4 of this thesis concern the history of the judicial treatment of the criminally insane as well as describing the basic legal principles and criminal-political considerations which stand as the foundation of the provisions in the penal code regarding the mentally ill. Section 5 gives an outline of the law in its present state. Section six is comprised of summaries of the cases used in the study as well as commentaries regarding the courts’ rulings. In sections 7-8 the results... (More)
This thesis aims at investigating how and when the provision in the Swedish penal code regarding mental illness as a mitigating circumstance is applicable. The thesis is centered on a case study comprising 24 rulings from the time period 2007 - 2011.

Sections 3 and 4 of this thesis concern the history of the judicial treatment of the criminally insane as well as describing the basic legal principles and criminal-political considerations which stand as the foundation of the provisions in the penal code regarding the mentally ill. Section 5 gives an outline of the law in its present state. Section six is comprised of summaries of the cases used in the study as well as commentaries regarding the courts’ rulings. In sections 7-8 the results from the case study are presented, analyzed and conclusions are given. These sections also include a discussion on the problems and difficulties which became apparent after the reform of 2010.

Provisions regarding mental illness as a mitigating circumstance have been present in the Swedish penal code since its inception in the Swedish legal system. However, similar provisions have been present in Swedish law for hundreds of years. During the last couple of decades this provision has rarely been applied by the courts. The reason for this could be that the provision contained qualifying elements, meaning that the suspect’s mental condition could be considered as a mitigating circumstance only when this condition was proven to have had a considerable impact on the suspects actions at the time of the criminal act. The rarity with which the provision has been applied has lead to a lack of guidelines regarding how and when it is applicable. As a consequence of a reform in 2010, the aforementioned qualifying elements in were abolished, leading to an extension in the provisions scope of application. Considering the lack of guidelines in court practice, this could probably lead to problems with lack of coherence in regard to interpretation and application between the courts.

This conclusion is to some degree supported by the case study. However, the same study has also shown that certain patterns can be found in the courts’ rulings –for example that the courts tend to be somewhat conservative with reducing sentences when the suspect’s mental condition has been difficult to define in medical terms.

Based upon this case study and the resulting conlusions, a number of recommendations are sketched out in section 7. These are primarily recommendations regarding the sizes of reductions of sentences when mental illnesses are to be considered as a mitigating circumstance. Hopefully, these recommendations can serve as guidelines as to how and when the provision is applicable, at least until such time that the swedish supreme court decide to rule in the question. (Less)
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author
Nilsson, Jonas LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Mental ilness as a mitigating circumstance - The applicability of article three, subsection two of the 29:th chapter of the swedish penal code
course
JURM02 20112
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, Psykisk störning, förmildrande omständigheter, rättsfallsundersökning
language
Swedish
id
2278804
date added to LUP
2012-02-16 14:50:22
date last changed
2012-02-16 14:50:22
@misc{2278804,
  abstract     = {This thesis aims at investigating how and when the provision in the Swedish penal code regarding mental illness as a mitigating circumstance is applicable. The thesis is centered on a case study comprising 24 rulings from the time period 2007 - 2011.

Sections 3 and 4 of this thesis concern the history of the judicial treatment of the criminally insane as well as describing the basic legal principles and criminal-political considerations which stand as the foundation of the provisions in the penal code regarding the mentally ill. Section 5 gives an outline of the law in its present state. Section six is comprised of summaries of the cases used in the study as well as commentaries regarding the courts’ rulings. In sections 7-8 the results from the case study are presented, analyzed and conclusions are given. These sections also include a discussion on the problems and difficulties which became apparent after the reform of 2010. 

Provisions regarding mental illness as a mitigating circumstance have been present in the Swedish penal code since its inception in the Swedish legal system. However, similar provisions have been present in Swedish law for hundreds of years. During the last couple of decades this provision has rarely been applied by the courts. The reason for this could be that the provision contained qualifying elements, meaning that the suspect’s mental condition could be considered as a mitigating circumstance only when this condition was proven to have had a considerable impact on the suspects actions at the time of the criminal act. The rarity with which the provision has been applied has lead to a lack of guidelines regarding how and when it is applicable. As a consequence of a reform in 2010, the aforementioned qualifying elements in were abolished, leading to an extension in the provisions scope of application. Considering the lack of guidelines in court practice, this could probably lead to problems with lack of coherence in regard to interpretation and application between the courts.

This conclusion is to some degree supported by the case study. However, the same study has also shown that certain patterns can be found in the courts’ rulings –for example that the courts tend to be somewhat conservative with reducing sentences when the suspect’s mental condition has been difficult to define in medical terms.

Based upon this case study and the resulting conlusions, a number of recommendations are sketched out in section 7. These are primarily recommendations regarding the sizes of reductions of sentences when mental illnesses are to be considered as a mitigating circumstance. Hopefully, these recommendations can serve as guidelines as to how and when the provision is applicable, at least until such time that the swedish supreme court decide to rule in the question.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Jonas},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,Psykisk störning,förmildrande omständigheter,rättsfallsundersökning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Psykisk störning som förmildrande omständighet - Tillämpningen av 29 kap. 3 § 1 st. 2p.},
  year         = {2012},
}