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Kommunikationspliktens betydelse i förvaltningsrätten - konsekvenser av att inte låta sakägare kommat till tals i lovärenden

Lundgren, Anna LU (2012) JURM02 20112
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Förvaltningsmyndigheter är en stor och olikartad grupp vilken bör särskiljas från samlingsbegreppet, och det i dagligt tal använda begreppet, myndighet. Detta har betydelse inte minst ur ett lagtekniskt perspektiv då förvaltningslagen (1986:223), FL, endast ska tillämpas av förvaltningsmyndigheter. Vilka myndigheter som omfattas är dock inte helt klart, då en tydlig definition saknas.

Inför att en myndighet ska fatta ett beslut, som innebär myndighetsutövning mot någon enskild, måste alla uppgifter av betydelse för ärendets avgörande kommuniceras med de som är att betrakta som part i ärendet, en avgränsning som dock inte alltid är helt självklar. Kommunikationsprincipen är en allmän rättsgrundsats, som sedan 1971 även regleras i lag,... (More)
Förvaltningsmyndigheter är en stor och olikartad grupp vilken bör särskiljas från samlingsbegreppet, och det i dagligt tal använda begreppet, myndighet. Detta har betydelse inte minst ur ett lagtekniskt perspektiv då förvaltningslagen (1986:223), FL, endast ska tillämpas av förvaltningsmyndigheter. Vilka myndigheter som omfattas är dock inte helt klart, då en tydlig definition saknas.

Inför att en myndighet ska fatta ett beslut, som innebär myndighetsutövning mot någon enskild, måste alla uppgifter av betydelse för ärendets avgörande kommuniceras med de som är att betrakta som part i ärendet, en avgränsning som dock inte alltid är helt självklar. Kommunikationsprincipen är en allmän rättsgrundsats, som sedan 1971 även regleras i lag, och stadgar att en part ska underrättas om ärendets utredningsmaterial för att därefter beredas tillfälle att yttra sig över detsamma. Till part räknas sökande, klagande eller annan part. Dock föreligger inte något efterforskningskrav för myndigheterna att utreda vem som kan betraktas som part. Det som ska kommuniceras är sådan uppgift som tillförts ärendet av någon annan. Det inkluderar inte bara skriftliga uppgifter utan även upplysningar som lämnats muntligt eller framkommit vid t.ex. syn.

Kommunikationsplikten har dock ett par olika undantagsbestämmelser. Det gäller när kommunicering är uppenbart obehövlig, för anställnings- och antagningsärenden mm., om kommunicering försvårar ett besluts verkställighet eller om det rör sig om ett brådskande ärende.

Under 2010 presenterade Förvaltningslagsutredningen genom SOU 2010:29 ett förslag på förändring i FL, vilket även inkluderade förslag på förändring avseende kommunikationspliktens utformning i 17 § FL. Förslaget betonar betydelsen av att förtroendet för den offentliga förvaltningen inte ifrågasätts och att den enskildes rätt tillvaratas. Lagens tillämpningsområde föreslås bli bredare då termen myndighetsutövning tas bort. Undantagsbestämmelserna avseende kommuniceringen föreslås till viss del inkluderas i grundkonstruktionen samtidigt som andra slopas helt, alternativt istället ska regleras i speciallagstiftning. Detta har starkt kritiserats av remissinstanserna som pekar på kraftigt ökad arbetsbelastning och därmed kostnader för det allmänna. I skrivande stund har regeringen ännu inte lagt fram någon proposition om en ny förvaltningslag.

Kommunikationsprincipen kommer även till uttryck i bl.a. plan- och bygglagen (2010:900), PBL. Bygglagstiftning har funnits i Sverige ända sedan landskapslagarna och har upprätthållit regler för byggandet i förhållande till grannar och samhällets krav. Den nuvarande lagstiftningen trädde i kraft den 2 maj 2011 och överensstämmer till stor del med PBL 1987 med främst redaktionella och språkliga ändringar.
I PBL används termen sakägare istället för part. Som kända sakägare betraktas ägare till fastighet som direkt gränsar till den aktuella fastigheten, s.k. rågrannar, samt de vars särskilda rättigheter avseende fastigheten är inskrivna i fastighetsregistret. Sakägarbegreppet har inte förändrats nämnvärt genom PBL varför rättspraxis som grundar sig på PBL 1987 kan tillämpas i sin helhet. I likhet med FL:s bestämmelser föreligger inte någon skyldighet för sökanden att inhämta yttranden från grannar och andra berörda, utan detta åvilar istället byggnadsnämnden.

Rättspraxis påtalar gång efter annan vikten av kommunicering genom att antingen återförvisa eller upphäva formellt felaktiga beslut. Även JO riktar kritik mot myndigheter som inte följer kraven på kommunikation. Den rättspraxis som hänför sig till bestämmelser i PBL 1987 är fortfarande aktuell och kan tillämpas i sin helhet för lagens nya utformning.

Då PBL trädde i kraft för knappt åtta månader sedan har konsekvenserna av dess nya utformning ännu inte kunnat utläsas. Lagen består dock främst av redaktionella ändringar varför kommunikationsplikten får anses ha samma betydelse som innan men att den nu istället framgår på ett tydligare sätt, som ett led i att modernisera och förenkla plan- och bygglagstiftningen. Om ett förslag till ny förvaltningslag överensstämmer med PBL och dess tillämpning av kommunikationsplikten återstår att se. (Less)
Abstract
Administrative authorities are a large and heterogeneous group which should be separated from what is referred to as public authorities. The Administrative Procedure Act is only applicable to administrative authorities. What public authorities that are included are not easy to determine as there is no clear definition.

When an administrative authority is to make a decision that involves exercise of public authority against an individual, all information that is significant to the outcome of the case must be communicated, not always an obvious delimitation. The principle of communication, a legal tenet which also is regulated by law since 1971, state that a party shall be notified of the administrative information of the case and... (More)
Administrative authorities are a large and heterogeneous group which should be separated from what is referred to as public authorities. The Administrative Procedure Act is only applicable to administrative authorities. What public authorities that are included are not easy to determine as there is no clear definition.

When an administrative authority is to make a decision that involves exercise of public authority against an individual, all information that is significant to the outcome of the case must be communicated, not always an obvious delimitation. The principle of communication, a legal tenet which also is regulated by law since 1971, state that a party shall be notified of the administrative information of the case and thereafter gets the opportunity to express its opinion of it. A party includes applicants, complainant and other parties. There is no obligation for the public authorities to investigate who might be considered a party besides the ones that are already know as such. Their task is to communicate administrative data which has been brought to the case by someone else. That does not only include written data but also verbal information or information which has appeared at an inspection.

There are a few exceptions from the principle of communication. They include times when communication apparently is unneeded, for employment and admission matters, when communication obstructs an execution or if there is a matter of urgency.

During 2010 the Förvalningsutredning presented a suggestion of changes in the Administrative Procedure Act. It also included a suggestion of change regarding the principle of communication and its wording in the 17 §. The suggestion emphasizes the importance of the public’s reliance on the public administration and the importance to look after one’s right. The suggested Act’s field of application is broader due to the suggestion to remove the expression exercise of public authority against an individual. The exceptions suggest in some part to be a part of the primary composition meanwhile others will be abrogated, or perhaps regulated in a special act. This has strongly been criticized by the consulted bodies which refer to increased work load and therefore increased costs for the public. In this moment the government has still not presented a statement for a new Administrative Procedure Act.

The principle of communication also figures in the Planning and Building Act. Laws of construction have existed in Swedish law ever since the provincial laws and have maintained rules of construction relative to neighbors and demands from the community. The current legislation came into force May 2nd 2011 and corresponds well to the Planning and Building Act of 1987, despite editorial and linguistic changes.

In the Planning- and Building Act a party is referred to as party with interests in the case. A neighbor property owner is to be considered an interested party as well as someone who has special rights listed in the land registry regarding the property. The term of interested party has not changed considerably due to the Planning and Building Act and therefore it is possible to administer case law that refers to Planning and Building Act 1987. In conformity with the Administrative Procedure Act there is no obligation for the applicant to gather statement from the neighbors and other to whom it may concern. This responsibility rests with the construction board.

Case law repeatedly emphasizes the importance of communication either through remit or abrogates a formally incorrect decision. Even the Parliamentary Ombudsmen levels criticism against authorities that does not observe the demands of communication. The case law that applies for PBL 1987 are still of current interest and can in fully be applied for in the new formulation of the law.

Since the Planning and Building Act came into force less than eight months ago it has been unable to deduce the consequences of the new formation. Due to the fact that the Act mostly consists of editorial changes it is reasonable to assume that the principle of communication has the same meaning as before but appears much clearer as a part of modernizing and simplifying the Planning and Building Act. However, if a suggestion of a new Administrative Procedure Act will correspond with the Planning and Building Act or not remains to be seen. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lundgren, Anna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The significance of the principle of communication in administrative law - consequences of not allowing interested parties to express themselves in cases of building permit
course
JURM02 20112
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
förvaltningsrätt, kommunikation, bygglov
language
Swedish
id
2293990
date added to LUP
2012-02-16 15:35:21
date last changed
2012-02-16 15:35:21
@misc{2293990,
  abstract     = {Administrative authorities are a large and heterogeneous group which should be separated from what is referred to as public authorities. The Administrative Procedure Act is only applicable to administrative authorities. What public authorities that are included are not easy to determine as there is no clear definition.

When an administrative authority is to make a decision that involves exercise of public authority against an individual, all information that is significant to the outcome of the case must be communicated, not always an obvious delimitation. The principle of communication, a legal tenet which also is regulated by law since 1971, state that a party shall be notified of the administrative information of the case and thereafter gets the opportunity to express its opinion of it. A party includes applicants, complainant and other parties. There is no obligation for the public authorities to investigate who might be considered a party besides the ones that are already know as such. Their task is to communicate administrative data which has been brought to the case by someone else. That does not only include written data but also verbal information or information which has appeared at an inspection. 

There are a few exceptions from the principle of communication. They include times when communication apparently is unneeded, for employment and admission matters, when communication obstructs an execution or if there is a matter of urgency.  

During 2010 the Förvalningsutredning presented a suggestion of changes in the Administrative Procedure Act. It also included a suggestion of change regarding the principle of communication and its wording in the 17 §. The suggestion emphasizes the importance of the public’s reliance on the public administration and the importance to look after one’s right. The suggested Act’s field of application is broader due to the suggestion to remove the expression exercise of public authority against an individual. The exceptions suggest in some part to be a part of the primary composition meanwhile others will be abrogated, or perhaps regulated in a special act. This has strongly been criticized by the consulted bodies which refer to increased work load and therefore increased costs for the public. In this moment the government has still not presented a statement for a new Administrative Procedure Act. 

The principle of communication also figures in the Planning and Building Act. Laws of construction have existed in Swedish law ever since the provincial laws and have maintained rules of construction relative to neighbors and demands from the community. The current legislation came into force May 2nd 2011 and corresponds well to the Planning and Building Act of 1987, despite editorial and linguistic changes. 

In the Planning- and Building Act a party is referred to as party with interests in the case. A neighbor property owner is to be considered an interested party as well as someone who has special rights listed in the land registry regarding the property. The term of interested party has not changed considerably due to the Planning and Building Act and therefore it is possible to administer case law that refers to Planning and Building Act 1987. In conformity with the Administrative Procedure Act there is no obligation for the applicant to gather statement from the neighbors and other to whom it may concern. This responsibility rests with the construction board. 

Case law repeatedly emphasizes the importance of communication either through remit or abrogates a formally incorrect decision. Even the Parliamentary Ombudsmen levels criticism against authorities that does not observe the demands of communication. The case law that applies for PBL 1987 are still of current interest and can in fully be applied for in the new formulation of the law.

Since the Planning and Building Act came into force less than eight months ago it has been unable to deduce the consequences of the new formation. Due to the fact that the Act mostly consists of editorial changes it is reasonable to assume that the principle of communication has the same meaning as before but appears much clearer as a part of modernizing and simplifying the Planning and Building Act. However, if a suggestion of a new Administrative Procedure Act will correspond with the Planning and Building Act or not remains to be seen.},
  author       = {Lundgren, Anna},
  keyword      = {förvaltningsrätt,kommunikation,bygglov},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Kommunikationspliktens betydelse i förvaltningsrätten - konsekvenser av att inte låta sakägare kommat till tals i lovärenden},
  year         = {2012},
}