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Skiljedomar – en rättskälla?

Lindholm, Lovisa LU (2012) JURM02 20112
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Rättskällornas uppgift är att belysa rättsordningen och att bidra till förutsebarhet och transparens i rättsystemet genom att hjälpa yrkesverksamma jurister att uttolka gällande rätt. En rättskälla kan sammanfattas som det material yrkesverksamma jurister beaktar och hänvisar till i sin rättsliga argumentation. Frågan om huruvida skiljedomar kan utgöra en rättskälla bör därför besvaras utifrån det faktum att jurister inom de områden där skiljeförfaranden är vanliga numera refererar till skiljedomar som stöd för sin argumentation. Det får även antas att domstolen beaktar de skiljedomar som refereras till.

Lämpligheten i att erkänna skiljedomar som rättskälla kan utläsas av de aspekter av skiljeförfarandet och skiljedomen som syftar till... (More)
Rättskällornas uppgift är att belysa rättsordningen och att bidra till förutsebarhet och transparens i rättsystemet genom att hjälpa yrkesverksamma jurister att uttolka gällande rätt. En rättskälla kan sammanfattas som det material yrkesverksamma jurister beaktar och hänvisar till i sin rättsliga argumentation. Frågan om huruvida skiljedomar kan utgöra en rättskälla bör därför besvaras utifrån det faktum att jurister inom de områden där skiljeförfaranden är vanliga numera refererar till skiljedomar som stöd för sin argumentation. Det får även antas att domstolen beaktar de skiljedomar som refereras till.

Lämpligheten i att erkänna skiljedomar som rättskälla kan utläsas av de aspekter av skiljeförfarandet och skiljedomen som syftar till att möjliggöra ett rättssäkert förfarande och ett materiellt korrekt avgörande. Det åtgärder som vidtagits för att säkerställa rättssäkerheten i skiljeförfarandet har ansetts tillräckliga för att tillåta att skiljedomar verkställs genom exekutiva myndigheter. Statens avkall på sitt rättskipningsmonopol till förmån för skiljeförfarandet har fått konsekvenser i form av prejudikatsbrist på de rättsområden där skiljeförfarandet är den dominerande tvistelösningsformen.

Svenska skiljeförfaranden avgörs med utgångspunkt i gällande rätt och parterna kan räkna med att skiljenämnden söker vägledning i erkända svenska rättskällor. Parterna disponerar över skiljeförfarandet och kan instruera skiljenämnden om på vilka grunder de vill att tvisten ska avgöras. Det finns inga garantier för att skiljenämnden kommer fram till ett rättsligt korrekt avgörande. I regel är dock skiljenämnden mycket kompetent att behandla kommersiella tvister och det föreligger incitament för skiljenämnden att fatta ett slutligt och korrekt avgörande. Domskälen i skiljedomar innehåller ett sådant rättsligt resonemang som kan vara av betydelse för rättstillämpningen även i andra avgöranden. Det rättsliga resonemanget värderas olika högt beroende på vem som har varit skiljeman och vilken fråga som behandlats.

Att skiljedomar inte är offentliga är det främsta argumentet mot skiljedomar som rättskälla. Den ökade tillgängligheten på rättskällor får en direkt påverkan på vilket material yrkesverksamma jurister använder sig av i sin rättsliga argumentation och skiljedomar som är offentliga kan således komma att tillmätas betydelse som rättskälla.

Slutsatsen är därför att skiljedomar bör betraktas som en rättskälla som domstolen får beakta och att skiljedomar också lämpar sig för att vara en rättskälla. Skiljedomar kan också ses som ett positivt bidrag till rättsbildningen, särskilt inom de rättsliga områden där det saknas vägledande prejudikat. (Less)
Abstract
The role of legal sources is to inform the interpretation of the law and to contribute to predictability and transparency in the justice system by helping practicing lawyers to interpret current law. A source of law can be summarized as the material that practicing lawyers use and reference in their legal argumentation. The question whether arbitral awards should be recognized as sources of law must therefore be answered based on the fact that practicing lawyers in areas where arbitration is common nowadays refer to arbitral awards to support their arguments. It can also be assumed that courts take into account arbitral awards that are being referred to.

The appropriateness of recognizing arbitral awards as sources of law can be... (More)
The role of legal sources is to inform the interpretation of the law and to contribute to predictability and transparency in the justice system by helping practicing lawyers to interpret current law. A source of law can be summarized as the material that practicing lawyers use and reference in their legal argumentation. The question whether arbitral awards should be recognized as sources of law must therefore be answered based on the fact that practicing lawyers in areas where arbitration is common nowadays refer to arbitral awards to support their arguments. It can also be assumed that courts take into account arbitral awards that are being referred to.

The appropriateness of recognizing arbitral awards as sources of law can be assessed by looking at the aspects of arbitration and the arbitral award that serve to enable legally secure and legally correct decisions. There have been efforts made to ensure the rule of law in the arbitral process which have been considered sufficient to allow arbitral awards to be implemented by executive authorities. The state's withdrawal from its justice making monopoly in favor of arbitration has had consequences in the form of lack of precedent in legal areas where arbitration is the dominating dispute settlement arrangement.

Swedish arbitration is made on the basis of current law and parties can expect the tribunal to seek guidance in recognized Swedish legal sources. The parties own the arbitration and can instruct the tribunal as to which grounds they want the dispute to be resolved upon. There are no guarantees that the tribunal reaches a "legally correct" decision. In principle, however, the tribunal is very competent to handle commercial disputes and have incentives to reach a final and correct decision. The grounds in arbitral awards contain such legal arguments that can be of importance for law enforcement also concerning other decisions. The value of the legal argument depends on who has been the arbitrator and which issue has been considered.

The fact that arbitral awards are not public is the foremost argument against arbitral awards as sources of law. The increasing access to legal sources has however a direct impact on legal practice and arbitral awards can thus come to be considered meaningful as legal sources.

The conclusion is therefore that arbitral awards are sources of law that may be considered by courts and that arbitral awards are also appropriate as legal sources. Arbitral awards can also be seen as a positive contribution to the formation of law within legal areas where guiding precedent are lacking. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lindholm, Lovisa LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Arbitral awards – a source of law?
course
JURM02 20112
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
processrätt, skiljedom, skiljeförfarande, allmän rättslära, rättskälla
language
Swedish
id
2295461
date added to LUP
2012-02-16 13:58:35
date last changed
2012-02-16 13:58:35
@misc{2295461,
  abstract     = {The role of legal sources is to inform the interpretation of the law and to contribute to predictability and transparency in the justice system by helping practicing lawyers to interpret current law. A source of law can be summarized as the material that practicing lawyers use and reference in their legal argumentation. The question whether arbitral awards should be recognized as sources of law must therefore be answered based on the fact that practicing lawyers in areas where arbitration is common nowadays refer to arbitral awards to support their arguments. It can also be assumed that courts take into account arbitral awards that are being referred to.

The appropriateness of recognizing arbitral awards as sources of law can be assessed by looking at the aspects of arbitration and the arbitral award that serve to enable legally secure and legally correct decisions. There have been efforts made to ensure the rule of law in the arbitral process which have been considered sufficient to allow arbitral awards to be implemented by executive authorities. The state's withdrawal from its justice making monopoly in favor of arbitration has had consequences in the form of lack of precedent in legal areas where arbitration is the dominating dispute settlement arrangement.

Swedish arbitration is made on the basis of current law and parties can expect the tribunal to seek guidance in recognized Swedish legal sources. The parties own the arbitration and can instruct the tribunal as to which grounds they want the dispute to be resolved upon. There are no guarantees that the tribunal reaches a "legally correct" decision. In principle, however, the tribunal is very competent to handle commercial disputes and have incentives to reach a final and correct decision. The grounds in arbitral awards contain such legal arguments that can be of importance for law enforcement also concerning other decisions. The value of the legal argument depends on who has been the arbitrator and which issue has been considered. 

The fact that arbitral awards are not public is the foremost argument against arbitral awards as sources of law. The increasing access to legal sources has however a direct impact on legal practice and arbitral awards can thus come to be considered meaningful as legal sources. 

The conclusion is therefore that arbitral awards are sources of law that may be considered by courts and that arbitral awards are also appropriate as legal sources. Arbitral awards can also be seen as a positive contribution to the formation of law within legal areas where guiding precedent are lacking.},
  author       = {Lindholm, Lovisa},
  keyword      = {processrätt,skiljedom,skiljeförfarande,allmän rättslära,rättskälla},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Skiljedomar – en rättskälla?},
  year         = {2012},
}