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The Principle of Ne Bis In Idem: Human Rights and the Enforcement of European Union Competition Law

Lundeholm, Carl LU (2012) JURM02 20112
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats behandlar frågan om hur EU:s konkurrensrätt förhåller sig till rättsprincipen ne bis in idem. I och med att Förordning 1/2003 trädde i kraft 2004 så ändrades reglerna om tillämpning av EU:s konkurrensregler i grunden. I det nya moderniserade tillämpningssystemet på konkurrensrättens område så delar Kommissionen behörigheten att tillämpa EU:s konkurrensregler med nationella konkurrensmyndigheter och domstolar.

Förordning 1/2003 omfattar inte regler som delar upp jurisdiktionen att tillämpa EU:s konkurrensregler mellan Kommissionen och nationella konkurrensmyndigheter och domstolar. Eftersom Kommissionen och nationella konkurrensmyndigheter och domstolar alla är behöriga att tillämpa EU:s konkurrensregler så skapade man ett... (More)
Denna uppsats behandlar frågan om hur EU:s konkurrensrätt förhåller sig till rättsprincipen ne bis in idem. I och med att Förordning 1/2003 trädde i kraft 2004 så ändrades reglerna om tillämpning av EU:s konkurrensregler i grunden. I det nya moderniserade tillämpningssystemet på konkurrensrättens område så delar Kommissionen behörigheten att tillämpa EU:s konkurrensregler med nationella konkurrensmyndigheter och domstolar.

Förordning 1/2003 omfattar inte regler som delar upp jurisdiktionen att tillämpa EU:s konkurrensregler mellan Kommissionen och nationella konkurrensmyndigheter och domstolar. Eftersom Kommissionen och nationella konkurrensmyndigheter och domstolar alla är behöriga att tillämpa EU:s konkurrensregler så skapade man ett nätverk, European Competition Network (ECN), vilket fungerar som ett forum där Kommissionen och nationella myndigheter kan fördela arbetet med att tillämpa EU:s konkurrensregler mellan sig.

ECN:s arbetar utifrån att varje mål som rör tillämpning av EU:s konkurrensregler endast ska utredas av en myndighet. Det finns emellertid inga bindande regler som försäkrar att så alltid är fallet. I det tillämpningssystem som regleras av Förordning 1/2003 kan en och samma överträdelse av EU:s konkurrensregler utredas och straffas av fler än en myndighet.

Det faktum att företag i EU kan straffas mer än en gång för samma överträdelse kan innebära ett brott mot rätten att inte lagföras mer än en gång för samma brott (rättsprincipen ne bis in idem). Rättsprincipen ne bis in idem utgör en grundläggande mänsklig rättighet som står med i alla de rättsakter om mänskliga rättigheter som erkänns av EU.

EU har förstärkt sitt skydd för mänskliga rättigheter under senare år. Sedan Lissabonfördraget trädde ikraft 2009 så erkänner EU formellt tre olika rättskällor om mänskliga rättigheter: Europeiska unionens stadga om de grundläggande rättigheterna, Europeiska konventionen om skydd för de mänskliga rättigheterna och de grundläggande friheterna samt allmänna principer såsom de följer av medlemsstaternas gemensamma konstitutionella traditioner. Skyddet för mänskliga rättigheter i Unionsrätten bör därför kunna anses omfattande.

EU:s förstärkta skydd för mänskliga rättigheter innebär att lagstiftningsreformer såsom reformen av det EU-rättsliga tillämpningssystemet på konkurrensrättens område måste ta skyddet för mänskliga rättigheter i beaktning. Europeiska unionens domstol måste ge ett så omfattande skydd som möjligt genom att inte tolka mänskliga rättigheter snävare än vad Europeiska domstolen för de mänskliga rättigheterna gör. (Less)
Abstract
This paper addresses how the principle of ne bis in idem relates to the enforcement of EU competition law. Regulation 1/2003 came into force in 2004 and with this the enforcement system of EU competition law that had been in place for over 40 years was fundamentally reformed. Under the new modernized enforcement system of the EU competition rules, national competition authorities (NCAs) and national courts in the Member States share the power with the Commission to apply EU competition law.

Regulation 1/2003 does not include rules on how the jurisdiction should be divided between the Commission, NCAs and national courts when applying the EU competition rules. As the Commission, NCAs and national courts all remains competent to deal with... (More)
This paper addresses how the principle of ne bis in idem relates to the enforcement of EU competition law. Regulation 1/2003 came into force in 2004 and with this the enforcement system of EU competition law that had been in place for over 40 years was fundamentally reformed. Under the new modernized enforcement system of the EU competition rules, national competition authorities (NCAs) and national courts in the Member States share the power with the Commission to apply EU competition law.

Regulation 1/2003 does not include rules on how the jurisdiction should be divided between the Commission, NCAs and national courts when applying the EU competition rules. As the Commission, NCAs and national courts all remains competent to deal with every infringement of the EU competition rules, the European Competition Network (ECN) was set up as a forum where the work of enforcing the EU competition rules could be divided between the Commission and the authorities in the Member States.

The objective of the ECN is that each case that involves the application of EU competition law should be dealt by a single authority. However, there are no binding rules to guarantee that this will always be the case. Instead, the system of enforcement under Regulation 1/2003 allows for parallel or consecutive infringement proceedings and sanctions under the EU competition rules by more than one authority in the same case.

As undertakings in the EU can be prosecuted more than once for the same anti-competitive behavior, the right of not being tried more than once for the same offence; the principle of ne bis in idem, is at risk of being violated. The principle of ne bis in idem is a fundamental human right guaranteed under all the different sources of human rights law recognized by the EU.

The EU has reaffirmed its dedication to protecting human rights in the past several years. Since the Lisbon Treaty came into force in 2009, the EU formally recognizes three different sources of human rights law: The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and general principles as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States. The protection of human rights in the Union legal order should therefore be far reaching.

The increased protection of human rights in the EU means that when rules such as the enforcement rules of EU competition law are reformed, the protection of human rights need to be taken into account. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) also needs to assure that it provides for the widest protection of human rights possible by not interpreting the scope of human rights less extensively than the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). (Less)
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author
Lundeholm, Carl LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM02 20112
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Konkurrensrätt competition law EU-rätt EU law human rights ne bis in idem mänskliga rättigheter
language
English
id
2343939
date added to LUP
2012-05-29 14:59:58
date last changed
2012-05-29 14:59:58
@misc{2343939,
  abstract     = {This paper addresses how the principle of ne bis in idem relates to the enforcement of EU competition law. Regulation 1/2003 came into force in 2004 and with this the enforcement system of EU competition law that had been in place for over 40 years was fundamentally reformed. Under the new modernized enforcement system of the EU competition rules, national competition authorities (NCAs) and national courts in the Member States share the power with the Commission to apply EU competition law.

Regulation 1/2003 does not include rules on how the jurisdiction should be divided between the Commission, NCAs and national courts when applying the EU competition rules. As the Commission, NCAs and national courts all remains competent to deal with every infringement of the EU competition rules, the European Competition Network (ECN) was set up as a forum where the work of enforcing the EU competition rules could be divided between the Commission and the authorities in the Member States.

The objective of the ECN is that each case that involves the application of EU competition law should be dealt by a single authority. However, there are no binding rules to guarantee that this will always be the case. Instead, the system of enforcement under Regulation 1/2003 allows for parallel or consecutive infringement proceedings and sanctions under the EU competition rules by more than one authority in the same case.

As undertakings in the EU can be prosecuted more than once for the same anti-competitive behavior, the right of not being tried more than once for the same offence; the principle of ne bis in idem, is at risk of being violated. The principle of ne bis in idem is a fundamental human right guaranteed under all the different sources of human rights law recognized by the EU.

The EU has reaffirmed its dedication to protecting human rights in the past several years. Since the Lisbon Treaty came into force in 2009, the EU formally recognizes three different sources of human rights law: The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and general principles as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States. The protection of human rights in the Union legal order should therefore be far reaching.

The increased protection of human rights in the EU means that when rules such as the enforcement rules of EU competition law are reformed, the protection of human rights need to be taken into account. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) also needs to assure that it provides for the widest protection of human rights possible by not interpreting the scope of human rights less extensively than the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR).},
  author       = {Lundeholm, Carl},
  keyword      = {Konkurrensrätt competition law EU-rätt EU law human rights ne bis in idem mänskliga rättigheter},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {The Principle of Ne Bis In Idem: Human Rights and the Enforcement of European Union Competition Law},
  year         = {2012},
}