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Infiltration - ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv

Umdi, Sait LU (2012) JURM01 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning
Denna uppsats handlar om de brottsbekämpande myndigheternas användning av den okonventionella spaningsmetoden infiltration, en spaningsmetod som den svenska polisen, sedan många år, utan uttryckligt lagstöd använt sig av. Som utgångspunkt har arbetet haft ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv på infiltrationsverksamheten. Syftet med undersökningen har, med andra ord, varit att studera det rättsliga stödet för användandet av infiltration och utreda hur det överensstämmer med kraven om rättssäkerhet.

Trots att begreppet rättssäkerhet ofta förekommer i den allmänna och rättsvetenskapliga diskussionen, saknas en legaldefinition av begreppet. Det har emellertid, i den juridiska doktrinen och lagförarbeten, förts diskussioner som har... (More)
Sammanfattning
Denna uppsats handlar om de brottsbekämpande myndigheternas användning av den okonventionella spaningsmetoden infiltration, en spaningsmetod som den svenska polisen, sedan många år, utan uttryckligt lagstöd använt sig av. Som utgångspunkt har arbetet haft ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv på infiltrationsverksamheten. Syftet med undersökningen har, med andra ord, varit att studera det rättsliga stödet för användandet av infiltration och utreda hur det överensstämmer med kraven om rättssäkerhet.

Trots att begreppet rättssäkerhet ofta förekommer i den allmänna och rättsvetenskapliga diskussionen, saknas en legaldefinition av begreppet. Det har emellertid, i den juridiska doktrinen och lagförarbeten, förts diskussioner som har tagit sikte på att definiera begreppet rättssäkerhet. Det gemensamma i dessa olika definitioner, kan sägas ligga i att begreppet tillskrivs förutsebarhet i rättsliga angelägenheter. Lagarna ska vara så utformade att det klart och tydligt framgår vad som är lagligt och olagligt.

Infiltration föreligger när en polisman eller en enskild, på polisens initiativ, tar sig in i en verksamhet, i syfte att erhålla information som kan vara till nytta i den brottsbekämpande verksamheten. Emellertid är ett sådant förfarande förenat med åtgärder som inbjuder till diskussion. För det första innehåller infiltrationen en hög grad av vilseledande, vilket de personerna som operationen riktar sig mot blir utsatta för. Vidare ställs infiltratören ofta för situationer, som innebär att infiltratören själv deltar i en brottslig verksamhet. En oreglerad användning av metoden leder till att det uppstår allvarliga brister inom den verksamheten. Det har hänt att infiltratör och även hanterare, d.v.s. den polisman som har ansvaret för kontakten med en infiltratör, begått brottsliga gärningar. Det råder alltså en tydlig osäkerhet kring lagenligheten och lämpligheten av infiltration som brottsbekämpningsmetod.

Det har föreslagits att en viss reglering, avseende vissa åtgärder som behöver vidtas under en infiltrationsoperation, bör införas i en ny särskild lag. Den föreslagna regleringen tar bl.a. sikte på annars brottsliga gärningar. Det föreslås bl.a. att infiltratören ska kunna tilldelas tillstånd att begå annars brottsliga gärningar. En viss begränsning avseende vilka brottsliga gärningar som ska föranleda ett tillstånd och ansvarsfrihet har föreslagits. Det har inte föreslagits någon reglering om själva användningen av infiltration. Ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv, vore det att föredra en reglering som även omfattar en allmän användning av infiltrationsoperationer. En sådan lösning skulle i högre grad bidra till att tillgodose kravet på förutsebarhet, som är en grundläggande del i begreppet rättssäkerhet. (Less)
Abstract
Summary
This thesis is about law enforcement agencies' use of the unconventional reconnaissance method of infiltration, a search method that the Swedish police, for many years, without the express support of the law made use of. As a starting point the work has had a legal perspective on infiltration activities. The aim of the study has, in other words, been to study the legal basis for the use of infiltration and investigate how it complies with the requirements of the rule of law.

Although the concept of the rule of law often is prevalent in the general and the legal scientific discussion, there is no legal definition of the term. It has, nevertheless, in the legal doctrine and legislative history, been discussions that have taken... (More)
Summary
This thesis is about law enforcement agencies' use of the unconventional reconnaissance method of infiltration, a search method that the Swedish police, for many years, without the express support of the law made use of. As a starting point the work has had a legal perspective on infiltration activities. The aim of the study has, in other words, been to study the legal basis for the use of infiltration and investigate how it complies with the requirements of the rule of law.

Although the concept of the rule of law often is prevalent in the general and the legal scientific discussion, there is no legal definition of the term. It has, nevertheless, in the legal doctrine and legislative history, been discussions that have taken the view to define the concept of the rule of law. What is common in these different definitions is that the concept is attributed to predictability in legal affairs. Laws should be designed so that it clearly reveals what is legal and illegal.

Infiltration occurs when a police officer or an individual, on the police own initiative, gets into a business, with the purpose of obtaining information that may be useful in law enforcement activities. However, such a procedure is associated with measures that encourage discussion. Firstly, the infiltration contains a high degree of deception, which the people subjects of the operation are victims of. Furthermore, the infiltrator often lands in situations, which makes him or her co-participant in a criminal activity. The unregulated use of the method leads to the emergence of serious shortcomings in the business. It has occurred that an infiltrator and even a handler, i.e. the police officer responsible for contact with an infiltrator, have committed criminal acts themselves. There is a clear uncertainty about the legality and appropriateness of infiltration such as law enforcement approach.

It has been suggested that some regulation, regarding certain measures to be taken during an infiltration operation, should appear in a new special law. The proposed rules will aim at otherwise criminal acts. The proposals include the infiltrator to be assigned permission to commit otherwise criminal acts. Certain restriction on which criminal act should lead them to a state and discharge have been suggested. No specific regulations have been suggested about the use of infiltration. From a legal perspective, it is preferable that a regulation also includes a general use of infiltration operations. Such a solution would contribute more effectively to address the requirement of foreseeability, which is a fundamental part of the concept of the rule of law. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Umdi, Sait LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Infiltration - within a rule of law perspective
course
JURM01 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
kvalificerade skyddsidentiteter, infiltratör, okonventionella spaningsmetoder, Infiltration, Straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
2429911
date added to LUP
2012-05-29 15:29:23
date last changed
2012-05-29 15:29:23
@misc{2429911,
  abstract     = {Summary
This thesis is about law enforcement agencies' use of the unconventional reconnaissance method of infiltration, a search method that the Swedish police, for many years, without the express support of the law made use of. As a starting point the work has had a legal perspective on infiltration activities. The aim of the study has, in other words, been to study the legal basis for the use of infiltration and investigate how it complies with the requirements of the rule of law.

Although the concept of the rule of law often is prevalent in the general and the legal scientific discussion, there is no legal definition of the term. It has, nevertheless, in the legal doctrine and legislative history, been discussions that have taken the view to define the concept of the rule of law. What is common in these different definitions is that the concept is attributed to predictability in legal affairs. Laws should be designed so that it clearly reveals what is legal and illegal.

Infiltration occurs when a police officer or an individual, on the police own initiative, gets into a business, with the purpose of obtaining information that may be useful in law enforcement activities. However, such a procedure is associated with measures that encourage discussion. Firstly, the infiltration contains a high degree of deception, which the people subjects of the operation are victims of. Furthermore, the infiltrator often lands in situations, which makes him or her co-participant in a criminal activity. The unregulated use of the method leads to the emergence of serious shortcomings in the business. It has occurred that an infiltrator and even a handler, i.e. the police officer responsible for contact with an infiltrator, have committed criminal acts themselves. There is a clear uncertainty about the legality and appropriateness of infiltration such as law enforcement approach.

It has been suggested that some regulation, regarding certain measures to be taken during an infiltration operation, should appear in a new special law. The proposed rules will aim at otherwise criminal acts. The proposals include the infiltrator to be assigned permission to commit otherwise criminal acts. Certain restriction on which criminal act should lead them to a state and discharge have been suggested. No specific regulations have been suggested about the use of infiltration. From a legal perspective, it is preferable that a regulation also includes a general use of infiltration operations. Such a solution would contribute more effectively to address the requirement of foreseeability, which is a fundamental part of the concept of the rule of law.},
  author       = {Umdi, Sait},
  keyword      = {kvalificerade skyddsidentiteter,infiltratör,okonventionella spaningsmetoder,Infiltration,Straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Infiltration - ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv},
  year         = {2012},
}