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Invandrad och utnyttjad? Om arbetsvillkoren för arbetskraftsinvandraren från tredjeland med tillfälligt arbetstillstånd

Lindberg, Märta LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sveriges och Europas befolkning blir allt äldre samtidigt som färre föds. Med andra ord ska allt färre yngre människor försörja allt fler äldre. Den 15 december 2008 infördes nya svenska regler för arbetskraftsinvandring från tredjeland. Reformen innebar att det gamla systemet där ansökningar om arbetstillstånd först prövades mot behovet på den inhemska marknaden, den så kallade arbetsmarknadsprövningen, avskaffades. Nu knyts istället arbetstillståndet till en specifik arbetsgivare som själv avgör huruvida denne är i behov av arbetskraft. Reformen innebar att Sverige fick det mest öppna systemet för arbetskraftsinvandring från tredjeland inom hela EU. Syftet med detta arbete är att ur ett arbetstagarperspektiv och inom en EU-rättslig ram,... (More)
Sveriges och Europas befolkning blir allt äldre samtidigt som färre föds. Med andra ord ska allt färre yngre människor försörja allt fler äldre. Den 15 december 2008 infördes nya svenska regler för arbetskraftsinvandring från tredjeland. Reformen innebar att det gamla systemet där ansökningar om arbetstillstånd först prövades mot behovet på den inhemska marknaden, den så kallade arbetsmarknadsprövningen, avskaffades. Nu knyts istället arbetstillståndet till en specifik arbetsgivare som själv avgör huruvida denne är i behov av arbetskraft. Reformen innebar att Sverige fick det mest öppna systemet för arbetskraftsinvandring från tredjeland inom hela EU. Syftet med detta arbete är att ur ett arbetstagarperspektiv och inom en EU-rättslig ram, undersöka denna svenska rättsliga reglering kring tillfälliga arbetstillstånd för arbetskraftsinvandrare från tredjeland, samt efterlevnaden av regleringen. Arbetet behandlar regleringen ur ett de lege lata- och ett de lege ferenda-perspektiv.

För att arbetstagaren ska beviljas arbetstillstånd krävs enligt 6 kap. 2 § utlänningslagen (2005:716) att en arbetsgivare i Sverige erbjuder en anställning där arbetsvillkoren är i överensstämmelse med gällande kollektivavtal eller praxis inom yrket. Migrationsverket är beslutande myndighet och avgör huruvida villkoren enligt utlänningslagen är uppfyllda. När väl anställningen är påbörjad avtar myndigheternas kontroll. Enligt den svenska modellen är det arbetsmarknadens parter som gemensamt förhandlar fram villkoren på arbetsmarknaden och ser till att dessa följs. Problemet är dock att fackföreningarna inte når alla arbetskraftsinvandrare. Många av dessa arbetstagare är inte anslutna till någon fackförening och en stor andel omfattas inte alls av något kollektivavtal. Av rädsla att bli av med sin anställning, med följden att få sitt arbetstillstånd återkallat, vågar inte arbetskraftsinvandrarna påtala felaktiga arbetsvillkor.

För kontroll hänvisar regeringen förutom till arbetsmarknadens parter, till Migrationsverket och Arbetsmiljöverket. Migrationsverket har dock inte befogenhet att göra några efterhandskontroller och Arbetsmiljöverket har en arbetsordning som inte har något tydligt fokus på arbetskraftsinvandrare med tillfälliga arbetstillstånd. Resultatet blir att arbetskraftsinvandrarnas frågor faller mellan stolarna. Att arbetskraftsinvandraren får lön, försäkringar och villkor i överensstämmelse med svenska kollektivavtal är dock inte bara en fråga för arbetsmarknadens parter, utan även en förutsättning för arbetstillstånd. Detta betyder att reglerna även är av offentligrättslig karaktär varför regeringen bör ta sitt ansvar och se över lagstiftningen så att arbetskraftsinvandrarnas utsatthet minimeras. Bindande anställningsavtal som villkor för arbetstillstånd, en effektiv efterhandskontroll och tydliga sanktioner mot arbetsgivaren är exempel på åtgärder som kan förbättra arbetskraftsinvandrarnas situation. (Less)
Abstract
The Swedish and European population is aging and fewer are born. In other words, fewer young people have to provide for an increasing number of elderly people. On December 15 2008 new Swedish rules for labour migration from third countries were introduced. The old system where an application for work permit was first assessed according to the needs of the domestic market, the so-called ”arbetsmarknadsprövningen” (labour market trial), was abolished. Today, work permits are instead tied to a specific employer who decides whether he or she is in need of manpower. This reform made the Swedish system for labour migration from third countries the most open within the EU. The purpose of this thesis is to, from the employee´s perspective and... (More)
The Swedish and European population is aging and fewer are born. In other words, fewer young people have to provide for an increasing number of elderly people. On December 15 2008 new Swedish rules for labour migration from third countries were introduced. The old system where an application for work permit was first assessed according to the needs of the domestic market, the so-called ”arbetsmarknadsprövningen” (labour market trial), was abolished. Today, work permits are instead tied to a specific employer who decides whether he or she is in need of manpower. This reform made the Swedish system for labour migration from third countries the most open within the EU. The purpose of this thesis is to, from the employee´s perspective and within a European legal framework, examine this Swedish legal regulation on temporary work permits for migrant workers, and the compliance with the regulation. The work addresses the regulation from a de lege lata and a de lege ferenda perspective.

For the employee to be granted a work permit, it is required under the Swedish Aliens Act (2005:716) chapter 6 § 2, that an employer in Sweden offers a job with working conditions consistent with existing collective agreements or practice within the profession. The Swedish Migration Board is the decision-making authority and determines whether the terms of the Aliens Act are met. Once the employment has started, the control by the authorities decreases. In the Swedish model, the social partners together negotiate and decide the terms of the labour market and ensure that they are followed. However, the problem is that unions can’t reach all migrant workers. Many of these workers are not connected to any union, and a large percentage is not covered by any collective agreement. Because of fear of losing their employment, which could result in withdrawal of their work permits, the labour migrants do not dare to complain about substandard working conditions.

To control the working conditions, the government refers not only to the social partners, but also to the Swedish Migration Board and to the Swedish Work Environment Authority. However, the Swedish Migration Board has no authority to make any follow-up inspections and the Work Environment Authority has a process with no distinct focus on migrant workers. The result is that the issues of labour migrants fall through the net. That the migrant workers’ salary, insurance, and other working conditions compliance with Swedish collective agreements are not just an issue for the social partners, but also a precondition for a work permit. This means that the rules are also of a public character, which is why the government should take responsibility and review the legislation so that the vulnerability of the labour migrants is minimized. Binding contracts as a precondition of work permit, effective follow-up inspections and clear sanctions against employers who violate the regulation are examples of measures that would improve the situation of labour migrants. (Less)
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author
Lindberg, Märta LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Immigrated and exploited? Working conditions of migrant workers from third countries with temporary work permits
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Arbetsrätt, Migrationsrätt, Utlänningslagen, Arbetstillstånd, Arbetskraftsinvandring, Arbetsvillkor.
language
Swedish
id
2431272
date added to LUP
2012-08-22 11:48:29
date last changed
2012-08-22 11:48:29
@misc{2431272,
  abstract     = {The Swedish and European population is aging and fewer are born. In other words, fewer young people have to provide for an increasing number of elderly people. On December 15 2008 new Swedish rules for labour migration from third countries were introduced. The old system where an application for work permit was first assessed according to the needs of the domestic market, the so-called ”arbetsmarknadsprövningen” (labour market trial), was abolished. Today, work permits are instead tied to a specific employer who decides whether he or she is in need of manpower. This reform made the Swedish system for labour migration from third countries the most open within the EU. The purpose of this thesis is to, from the employee´s perspective and within a European legal framework, examine this Swedish legal regulation on temporary work permits for migrant workers, and the compliance with the regulation. The work addresses the regulation from a de lege lata and a de lege ferenda perspective.

For the employee to be granted a work permit, it is required under the Swedish Aliens Act (2005:716) chapter 6 § 2, that an employer in Sweden offers a job with working conditions consistent with existing collective agreements or practice within the profession. The Swedish Migration Board is the decision-making authority and determines whether the terms of the Aliens Act are met. Once the employment has started, the control by the authorities decreases. In the Swedish model, the social partners together negotiate and decide the terms of the labour market and ensure that they are followed. However, the problem is that unions can’t reach all migrant workers. Many of these workers are not connected to any union, and a large percentage is not covered by any collective agreement. Because of fear of losing their employment, which could result in withdrawal of their work permits, the labour migrants do not dare to complain about substandard working conditions.

To control the working conditions, the government refers not only to the social partners, but also to the Swedish Migration Board and to the Swedish Work Environment Authority. However, the Swedish Migration Board has no authority to make any follow-up inspections and the Work Environment Authority has a process with no distinct focus on migrant workers. The result is that the issues of labour migrants fall through the net. That the migrant workers’ salary, insurance, and other working conditions compliance with Swedish collective agreements are not just an issue for the social partners, but also a precondition for a work permit. This means that the rules are also of a public character, which is why the government should take responsibility and review the legislation so that the vulnerability of the labour migrants is minimized. Binding contracts as a precondition of work permit, effective follow-up inspections and clear sanctions against employers who violate the regulation are examples of measures that would improve the situation of labour migrants.},
  author       = {Lindberg, Märta},
  keyword      = {Arbetsrätt,Migrationsrätt,Utlänningslagen,Arbetstillstånd,Arbetskraftsinvandring,Arbetsvillkor.},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Invandrad och utnyttjad? Om arbetsvillkoren för arbetskraftsinvandraren från tredjeland med tillfälligt arbetstillstånd},
  year         = {2012},
}