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Testing of new generation bio-fuels in diesel engines: Towards ultra-efficient and ultra-clean fuels.

Svensson, Patrik (2012) In ISRN LUTMDN/TMHP--12/5249--SE
Department of Energy Sciences
Abstract
Oil has been for the past 50 years the most widely used energy source. That is because oil contains a lot of energy and is easy to transport and store. But the use of oil has drawbacks; it is believed to change the earth’s climate due to the combustion and the emissions of the green house gases. The particles from the combustion cause problems for the human health. Today Oil accounts for 33 % of the worlds energy supply. The transport sector is today totally dependent on petroleum based fuels like petrol and diesel [1]. According to the Swedish environmental Protection agency, almost one third of the total carbon dioxide emissions in Sweden were due to the transport sector [2]. It is believed that the fossil fuels by 2030 will still be the... (More)
Oil has been for the past 50 years the most widely used energy source. That is because oil contains a lot of energy and is easy to transport and store. But the use of oil has drawbacks; it is believed to change the earth’s climate due to the combustion and the emissions of the green house gases. The particles from the combustion cause problems for the human health. Today Oil accounts for 33 % of the worlds energy supply. The transport sector is today totally dependent on petroleum based fuels like petrol and diesel [1]. According to the Swedish environmental Protection agency, almost one third of the total carbon dioxide emissions in Sweden were due to the transport sector [2]. It is believed that the fossil fuels by 2030 will still be the leading energy source. A good way to reduce the dependency of fossil fuels and reduce the green house gases is to replace or partly replace it with biofuels. The drawback by using biofuels is the production costs are higher. The challenge is to develop methods that provide a good exchange in energy and a reduction of total greenhouse gases when the entire production phase is taken into account [2]. Another possibility is to increase the efficiency of the engine. There are several new combustion techniques that has been developed and tried which still is at research stage, like Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC).
Due to stricter legislations there is a need to reduce the pollutant emissions such as NOx, particles, CO and HC. From the second generation source, the bio-ethanol can be produced from waste products from agricultural, domestic or industrial sources. The drawback from the second generation is the higher water content and it can´t be used in traditional engines, and the distillation costs for removing the water is also too expensive. The challenge is to engineer a cheap preparation process that enables the low-grade bio fuels to be used in diesel engines [3].
One way of taking care of the high water content is to replace a fraction of the bio-ethanol with Diethyl ether (DEE). It is not known how this mixture will change with operating conditions [3].
The composition of the fuel mixture is of very high importance because it affects the pollution. Alcohols such as methanol and ethanol show very low emissions of soot. DEE has in recent years received much attention as an alternative fuel because of its very low emissions of soot, and Haldor Topsoe has developed a very efficient method to produce DEE that use methane as a precursor [4]. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Svensson, Patrik
supervisor
organization
year
type
H1 - Master's Degree (One Year)
subject
keywords
bio-fuels diesel engines ultra-efficient ultra-clean
publication/series
ISRN LUTMDN/TMHP--12/5249--SE
language
English
id
2541254
date added to LUP
2012-05-16 14:47:36
date last changed
2012-05-16 14:47:36
@misc{2541254,
  abstract     = {Oil has been for the past 50 years the most widely used energy source. That is because oil contains a lot of energy and is easy to transport and store. But the use of oil has drawbacks; it is believed to change the earth’s climate due to the combustion and the emissions of the green house gases. The particles from the combustion cause problems for the human health. Today Oil accounts for 33 % of the worlds energy supply. The transport sector is today totally dependent on petroleum based fuels like petrol and diesel [1]. According to the Swedish environmental Protection agency, almost one third of the total carbon dioxide emissions in Sweden were due to the transport sector [2]. It is believed that the fossil fuels by 2030 will still be the leading energy source. A good way to reduce the dependency of fossil fuels and reduce the green house gases is to replace or partly replace it with biofuels. The drawback by using biofuels is the production costs are higher. The challenge is to develop methods that provide a good exchange in energy and a reduction of total greenhouse gases when the entire production phase is taken into account [2]. Another possibility is to increase the efficiency of the engine. There are several new combustion techniques that has been developed and tried which still is at research stage, like Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC).
Due to stricter legislations there is a need to reduce the pollutant emissions such as NOx, particles, CO and HC. From the second generation source, the bio-ethanol can be produced from waste products from agricultural, domestic or industrial sources. The drawback from the second generation is the higher water content and it can´t be used in traditional engines, and the distillation costs for removing the water is also too expensive. The challenge is to engineer a cheap preparation process that enables the low-grade bio fuels to be used in diesel engines [3].
One way of taking care of the high water content is to replace a fraction of the bio-ethanol with Diethyl ether (DEE). It is not known how this mixture will change with operating conditions [3].
The composition of the fuel mixture is of very high importance because it affects the pollution. Alcohols such as methanol and ethanol show very low emissions of soot. DEE has in recent years received much attention as an alternative fuel because of its very low emissions of soot, and Haldor Topsoe has developed a very efficient method to produce DEE that use methane as a precursor [4].},
  author       = {Svensson, Patrik},
  keyword      = {bio-fuels diesel engines ultra-efficient ultra-clean},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {ISRN LUTMDN/TMHP--12/5249--SE},
  title        = {Testing of new generation bio-fuels in diesel engines: Towards ultra-efficient and ultra-clean fuels.},
  year         = {2012},
}