Advanced

Nödvärnsrättens utsträckning i tiden - En komparativ utblick

Persson, Kristoffer LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats har haft som syfte att undersöka gällande rätt med avseende på nödvärnsrättens utformning i svensk, dansk, norsk och engelsk rätt. Genom en rättsdogmatisk metod redogörs för lagtext, förarbeten, doktrin och relevant praxis på området, vilket är i enlighet med de utpekade rättskällorna inom rättskälleläran.

Rätten till nödvärn i svensk rätt regleras i BrB 24 kap. 1 § och utmärks av att en angripen person eller annan person på platsen försöker avvärja ett brottsligt angrepp. För att handlingen ska kunna betraktas som rättsenlig i dess utförande, måste någon av de situationer upptagna i lagrummet föreligga, samt att agerandet inte bedöms vara uppenbart oförsvarligt. Enligt det svenska nödvärnsstadgandet skall denna bedömning... (More)
Denna uppsats har haft som syfte att undersöka gällande rätt med avseende på nödvärnsrättens utformning i svensk, dansk, norsk och engelsk rätt. Genom en rättsdogmatisk metod redogörs för lagtext, förarbeten, doktrin och relevant praxis på området, vilket är i enlighet med de utpekade rättskällorna inom rättskälleläran.

Rätten till nödvärn i svensk rätt regleras i BrB 24 kap. 1 § och utmärks av att en angripen person eller annan person på platsen försöker avvärja ett brottsligt angrepp. För att handlingen ska kunna betraktas som rättsenlig i dess utförande, måste någon av de situationer upptagna i lagrummet föreligga, samt att agerandet inte bedöms vara uppenbart oförsvarligt. Enligt det svenska nödvärnsstadgandet skall denna bedömning ske med beaktande av angreppets beskaffenhet, det angripnas betydelse och omständigheterna i övrigt. Nödvändighets- och proportionalitetsprincipen utgör även centrala inslag i denna bedömningsfråga.

Ett huvudsakligt problemområde inom nödvärnsrätten är att fastställa dess utsträckning i tiden och därmed bedöma ramarna för ett rättsenligt nödvärnsagerande. De tidsrelaterade rekvisiten som uppställts i lagtexten har varit föremål för förändringar genom årens lopp. Nu gällande bestämmelser medger en rätt till nödvärn gentemot de angrepp som har karaktär av att vara pågående eller överhängande. Uttrycket överhängande har visat sig vara ett otydligt rekvisit, vilket har varit lagstiftarens ursprungliga intention, för att överlämna den närmare bedömningsfrågan till domstolen. Då dessa gränser inte är helt klarlagda i svensk rätt har jag valt att göra en jämförelse med andra länder och deras förhållningssätt i frågan.
Arbetet fokuserar huvudsakligen på en komparativ studie av nödvärnsrättens utformning och tillämpning i närbesläktade rättssystem, där valet för mig föll på Danmark, Norge och England. Den företagna undersökningen visar att länderna uppvisar såväl likheter som skillnader med avseende på nödvärnsrättens utformning och utsträckning i tiden. Särskilt anmärkningsvärt är Norges frånvaro av ett tidsrelaterat rekvisit i dess nödvärnsbestämmelse. Detta har medfört att Norge i högre grad tillåtit försvarshandlingar som företagits på ett tidigt stadie, så kallat preventivt nödvärn, vilket har kommit till uttryck i rättspraxis men kritiserats av många juridiska författare. Preventivt nödvärn är i motsats till Norges uppfattning förbjudet att nyttja i svensk rätt, vilket öppnar upp för en viss diskussion i frågan. Av vikt för denna diskussion är även det omdebatterade ”battered woman syndrome” som flitigt omdebatterats inom den engelska doktrinen. Med uttrycket menas det förhållandet att en kvinna under lång tid av sin man utsatts för misshandel, kränkningar och hot som sammantaget lett fram till att en dödsbringande handling av makens liv företagits. Problemet är att gärningen inte föregåtts av ett pågående eller överhängande angrepp i lagstadgandets lexikaliska mening, utan snarare utgjort ett försvarshandlande av preventiv natur. (Less)
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to describe the law regarding the right of self-defense in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and England. Using a legal dogmatic method, it intends to describe the rights and possibilities being approved for a civilian in self-defense when being unrightfully attacked. This paper will also describe established law and analyze the right of self-defense as applicable in case law. At last, an analyze of the right of self-defense is being made, as it is regulated in Swedish law in comparison with foreign law and statutes.

The right of self-defense in Swedish law is regulated in BrB 24th chapter 1 §, the Swedish criminal code. This right is being granted to the person being attacked, or anyone else nearby, adjacent to... (More)
The main purpose of this paper is to describe the law regarding the right of self-defense in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and England. Using a legal dogmatic method, it intends to describe the rights and possibilities being approved for a civilian in self-defense when being unrightfully attacked. This paper will also describe established law and analyze the right of self-defense as applicable in case law. At last, an analyze of the right of self-defense is being made, as it is regulated in Swedish law in comparison with foreign law and statutes.

The right of self-defense in Swedish law is regulated in BrB 24th chapter 1 §, the Swedish criminal code. This right is being granted to the person being attacked, or anyone else nearby, adjacent to a criminal attack taken place. To be considered legal, any of the included situations of self-defense in the regulation must be at hand. Also the action being used in self-defense must not be considered obviously unjustifiable by the court. When making this decision, a number of conditions shall be taken into consideration by the court, namely the nature of the attack, the significance of the attacked object and other circumstances. The principles of necessity and proportionality are also central key elements to this assessment matter.

A main problem area within the right of self-defense is to determine the extent of the timeframe when self-defense is entitled to be used and hence to estimate the frames for a rightful action. The time-related constituent elements set out in the Act have been subject to changes throughout the years. The current rules allow a right of self-defense against the attacks which have the character to be ongoing or imminent. The term imminent has proved to be an indistinct constituent element, as has been the originally intent of the legislator. The reason for this is that the detailed question of assessment has been submitted to the court. Since these limits are not fully elucidated in Swedish law, I have made the choice to make a comparison assessment with other countries and their approach on the issue.
This paper mainly focuses on a comparative study of self-defense when it comes to form and application in closely related legal systems, for me this choice fell on Denmark, Norway and England. The present investigation that has been carried out shows that countries display both similarities and differences in form and extent of the timeframe when it comes to self-defense. Noteworthy in particular is Norway´s absence of a time-related constituent element in its provision of self-defense. This has led to the result that Norway to a greater extent permits defense actions taken at an early stage, so-called preventive self-defense. This has been expressed in Norwegian case law, but being heavily criticized by many legal writers. Preventive self-defense is in contrast to Norway prohibited of use in Swedish law, opening up for discussion on the issue. Important for this discussion is also the controversial “battered woman syndrome” which has been widely debated in English doctrine. The term refers to the fact that a woman for a long time suffered by her husband from beatings, violations and threats, which together have led to that a murderous deed has been carried out of the husband´s life. The main problem is that the deed was not preceded by an ongoing or imminent attack of the provisions lexical meaning, but rather provided a defensive action of preventive nature. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Persson, Kristoffer LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Right of Self-Defense - A Comparative Analysis
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, nödvärnsrätt
language
Swedish
id
2542827
date added to LUP
2012-11-01 11:18:28
date last changed
2012-11-01 11:18:28
@misc{2542827,
  abstract     = {The main purpose of this paper is to describe the law regarding the right of self-defense in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and England. Using a legal dogmatic method, it intends to describe the rights and possibilities being approved for a civilian in self-defense when being unrightfully attacked. This paper will also describe established law and analyze the right of self-defense as applicable in case law. At last, an analyze of the right of self-defense is being made, as it is regulated in Swedish law in comparison with foreign law and statutes. 

The right of self-defense in Swedish law is regulated in BrB 24th chapter 1 §, the Swedish criminal code. This right is being granted to the person being attacked, or anyone else nearby, adjacent to a criminal attack taken place. To be considered legal, any of the included situations of self-defense in the regulation must be at hand. Also the action being used in self-defense must not be considered obviously unjustifiable by the court. When making this decision, a number of conditions shall be taken into consideration by the court, namely the nature of the attack, the significance of the attacked object and other circumstances. The principles of necessity and proportionality are also central key elements to this assessment matter. 

A main problem area within the right of self-defense is to determine the extent of the timeframe when self-defense is entitled to be used and hence to estimate the frames for a rightful action. The time-related constituent elements set out in the Act have been subject to changes throughout the years. The current rules allow a right of self-defense against the attacks which have the character to be ongoing or imminent. The term imminent has proved to be an indistinct constituent element, as has been the originally intent of the legislator. The reason for this is that the detailed question of assessment has been submitted to the court. Since these limits are not fully elucidated in Swedish law, I have made the choice to make a comparison assessment with other countries and their approach on the issue.
 This paper mainly focuses on a comparative study of self-defense when it comes to form and application in closely related legal systems, for me this choice fell on Denmark, Norway and England. The present investigation that has been carried out shows that countries display both similarities and differences in form and extent of the timeframe when it comes to self-defense. Noteworthy in particular is Norway´s absence of a time-related constituent element in its provision of self-defense. This has led to the result that Norway to a greater extent permits defense actions taken at an early stage, so-called preventive self-defense. This has been expressed in Norwegian case law, but being heavily criticized by many legal writers. Preventive self-defense is in contrast to Norway prohibited of use in Swedish law, opening up for discussion on the issue. Important for this discussion is also the controversial “battered woman syndrome” which has been widely debated in English doctrine. The term refers to the fact that a woman for a long time suffered by her husband from beatings, violations and threats, which together have led to that a murderous deed has been carried out of the husband´s life. The main problem is that the deed was not preceded by an ongoing or imminent attack of the provisions lexical meaning, but rather provided a defensive action of preventive nature.},
  author       = {Persson, Kristoffer},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,nödvärnsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Nödvärnsrättens utsträckning i tiden - En komparativ utblick},
  year         = {2012},
}