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Och de tu skola varda ett kött - Om normativa grundmönster i skyddet för efterlevande make

Ronnle, Lisa LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Förevarande framställning syftar till att analysera skyddet för efterlevande make i relation till arvsrätten för den avlidnes släktarvingar, och i synnerhet dennes bröstarvingar. Utgångspunkten är Anna Christensens teori om de normativa grundmönstren. Arbetet behandlar rättsutvecklingen under 1900-talet och såväl det arvsrättsliga som det äktenskapsrättsliga regelverket diskuteras.

Den svenska äktenskapsrätten har under hundratals år dominerats av bilden av makarna som en harmonisk enhet. Äktenskapet har betraktats som ett oupplösligt statuskontrakt. Ur detta följer en tanke om gemenskap makarna emellan, vilken än idag präglar stora delar av den rättsliga regleringen. Som exempel kan likadelningsprincipen vid bodelning och makarnas... (More)
Förevarande framställning syftar till att analysera skyddet för efterlevande make i relation till arvsrätten för den avlidnes släktarvingar, och i synnerhet dennes bröstarvingar. Utgångspunkten är Anna Christensens teori om de normativa grundmönstren. Arbetet behandlar rättsutvecklingen under 1900-talet och såväl det arvsrättsliga som det äktenskapsrättsliga regelverket diskuteras.

Den svenska äktenskapsrätten har under hundratals år dominerats av bilden av makarna som en harmonisk enhet. Äktenskapet har betraktats som ett oupplösligt statuskontrakt. Ur detta följer en tanke om gemenskap makarna emellan, vilken än idag präglar stora delar av den rättsliga regleringen. Som exempel kan likadelningsprincipen vid bodelning och makarnas inbördes försörjningsplikt nämnas. Mot det äktenskapsrättsliga gemenskapsmönstret står bilden av makarna som två självständiga individer och äktenskapet som ett frivilligt avtal. Under 1900-talet har individualitetsmönstret bland annat tagit sig uttryck i rätten till fri skilsmässa och makarnas rätt att fritt disponera sin respektive egendom. Trots att tanken på makarna som två självständiga individer fått visst genomslag i den moderna äktenskapsrätten är gemenskapsmönstret fortfarande mycket starkt. Särskilt gäller detta när äktenskapet upplöses på grund av en av makarnas död.

I det förindustriella samhället var släkten och den släktägda jordegendomen avgörande för individens försörjning. Vad gäller arvsrätten har den rättsliga regleringen därför traditionellt tagit sin utgångspunkt i det oupplösliga statusförhållandet mellan arvlåtare och släktarvinge. Särskilt starkt har skyddet varit för den avlidnes bröstarvingar. I takt med att släkten minskat i betydelse har det äktenskapsrättsliga gemenskapsmönstret emellertid fått genomslag också på arvsrättens område. De senaste hundra åren har ett flertal reformer medfört att släktens arvsanspråk fått ge vika för efterlevande make. Utvecklingen har dock inte varit konfliktfri och fortfarande märks tydligt hur såväl det arvsrättsliga statusmönstret som det äktenskapsrättsliga gemenskapsmönstret försöker dra regleringen till sig. Lagstiftningen är således än idag splittrad mellan makens intresse av att hålla samman det gemensamma hemmet och bröstarvingarnas absoluta rätt till arv efter sin förälder.

Medan bröstarvingarnas arv idag närmast fyller en moralisk och känslomässig funktion, är rätten till kvarlåtenskapen för efterlevande make ofta av mera konkret, ekonomisk betydelse. Lagstiftaren föreslås därför avslutningsvis ta tydligare ställning till förmån för efterlevande make. Dessutom vilar den arvsrättsliga lagstiftningen i viss mån på föråldrade familjemönster och föreställningar om relationer människor emellan. Även av denna anledning bör arvsrätten förändras. (Less)
Abstract
The aim of this thesis is to analyse the protection of the surviving spouse in relation to the right of the deceased's natural heirs’, in particular his or her legal heirs’. The starting point is Anna Christensen's Theory of Normative Patterns. The thesis deals with the legal development during the 20th century and both the Swedish law of succession and the marital legal framework are discussed.

The Swedish marital law has for centuries been dominated by the image of the spouses as a harmonious unit. Marriage has been regarded as an insoluble status relation. From this follows the idea of community between the spouses, which still characterizes the legal regulation. To illustrate, the principle of equal division between the spouses and... (More)
The aim of this thesis is to analyse the protection of the surviving spouse in relation to the right of the deceased's natural heirs’, in particular his or her legal heirs’. The starting point is Anna Christensen's Theory of Normative Patterns. The thesis deals with the legal development during the 20th century and both the Swedish law of succession and the marital legal framework are discussed.

The Swedish marital law has for centuries been dominated by the image of the spouses as a harmonious unit. Marriage has been regarded as an insoluble status relation. From this follows the idea of community between the spouses, which still characterizes the legal regulation. To illustrate, the principle of equal division between the spouses and the spouses’ mutual duty to provide for one another can be mentioned. In contrast to the marital community pattern stands the image of the spouses as two independent individuals and the marriage as a voluntary agreement. During the 20th century, the normative pattern individuality/independence has manifested itself in for example the freedom of divorce and the spouses’ right to freely dispose of their own property. Although the notion of the spouses as two independent individuals has had some impact on the modern marital law, the community idea is still very strong. This is particularly the case when the marriage is dissolved due to the death of one spouse.

In the pre-industrial society, the family and the family-owned property were crucial for the support of the individual. The law of succession has therefore traditionally been based on the status relation between the intestate and his or her natural heirs. The protection of the deceased's legal heirs has been particularly strong. However, as the family declined in societal importance, the marital community pattern got an impact also on the law of succession. During the last century a number of legal reforms resulted in a stronger position for the surviving spouse, at the cost of the natural heirs. However, the development has not been conflict-free. It is obvious even today that both the status pattern of succession law and the marital community pattern are struggling to take control over the regulation. Thus, the law is still partially torn between the interest of the surviving spouse and the child’s absolute right to inherit from its parent.

While the right to inherit for the legal heirs nowadays primarily fills a moral and emotional function, the legal protection is of more practical and economic importance for the surviving spouse. The legislature must therefore take a clearer position in favour of the surviving spouse. Furthermore, the law of succession is, to some extent, based on old-fashioned family patterns and attitudes on human relationships. For that reason also, the law of succession needs changing. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ronnle, Lisa LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
And They Shall Be One Flesh - Normative Patterns In The Protection Of The Surviving Spouse
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
2543389
date added to LUP
2012-08-31 15:34:27
date last changed
2012-08-31 15:34:27
@misc{2543389,
  abstract     = {The aim of this thesis is to analyse the protection of the surviving spouse in relation to the right of the deceased's natural heirs’, in particular his or her legal heirs’. The starting point is Anna Christensen's Theory of Normative Patterns. The thesis deals with the legal development during the 20th century and both the Swedish law of succession and the marital legal framework are discussed.

The Swedish marital law has for centuries been dominated by the image of the spouses as a harmonious unit. Marriage has been regarded as an insoluble status relation. From this follows the idea of community between the spouses, which still characterizes the legal regulation. To illustrate, the principle of equal division between the spouses and the spouses’ mutual duty to provide for one another can be mentioned. In contrast to the marital community pattern stands the image of the spouses as two independent individuals and the marriage as a voluntary agreement. During the 20th century, the normative pattern individuality/independence has manifested itself in for example the freedom of divorce and the spouses’ right to freely dispose of their own property. Although the notion of the spouses as two independent individuals has had some impact on the modern marital law, the community idea is still very strong. This is particularly the case when the marriage is dissolved due to the death of one spouse.

In the pre-industrial society, the family and the family-owned property were crucial for the support of the individual. The law of succession has therefore traditionally been based on the status relation between the intestate and his or her natural heirs. The protection of the deceased's legal heirs has been particularly strong. However, as the family declined in societal importance, the marital community pattern got an impact also on the law of succession. During the last century a number of legal reforms resulted in a stronger position for the surviving spouse, at the cost of the natural heirs. However, the development has not been conflict-free. It is obvious even today that both the status pattern of succession law and the marital community pattern are struggling to take control over the regulation. Thus, the law is still partially torn between the interest of the surviving spouse and the child’s absolute right to inherit from its parent.

While the right to inherit for the legal heirs nowadays primarily fills a moral and emotional function, the legal protection is of more practical and economic importance for the surviving spouse. The legislature must therefore take a clearer position in favour of the surviving spouse. Furthermore, the law of succession is, to some extent, based on old-fashioned family patterns and attitudes on human relationships. For that reason also, the law of succession needs changing.},
  author       = {Ronnle, Lisa},
  keyword      = {familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Och de tu skola varda ett kött - Om normativa grundmönster i skyddet för efterlevande make},
  year         = {2012},
}