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Om den upphandlande kommunala myndighetens upphandlingsskyldighet gentemot hel- och delägt aktiebolag

Cronkvist, Maria LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
All införskaffning av varor, tjänster och byggentreprenader som görs inom den offentliga sektorn ska som huvudregel föregås av en offentlig upphandling. Offentlig upphandling kan definieras som en urvalsprocess med vissa moment som till sist leder till att den upphandlande myndigheten tecknar avtal med en vinnande leverantör. Det upphandlingsrättsliga regelverket inom EU består främst av två direktiv; direktiv 2004/18/EG och direktiv 2004/17/EG. Dessa direktiv bygger på i sin tur på EUF-fördraget som syftar till att förverkliga den inre marknaden och säkerställa att det finns en god och rättvis konkurrens inom Europeiska unionen. De grundläggande gemenskapsrättsliga principerna ska också beaktas vid all offentlig upphandling. Detta handlar... (More)
All införskaffning av varor, tjänster och byggentreprenader som görs inom den offentliga sektorn ska som huvudregel föregås av en offentlig upphandling. Offentlig upphandling kan definieras som en urvalsprocess med vissa moment som till sist leder till att den upphandlande myndigheten tecknar avtal med en vinnande leverantör. Det upphandlingsrättsliga regelverket inom EU består främst av två direktiv; direktiv 2004/18/EG och direktiv 2004/17/EG. Dessa direktiv bygger på i sin tur på EUF-fördraget som syftar till att förverkliga den inre marknaden och säkerställa att det finns en god och rättvis konkurrens inom Europeiska unionen. De grundläggande gemenskapsrättsliga principerna ska också beaktas vid all offentlig upphandling. Detta handlar exempelvis om principen om icke-diskriminering, likabehandling och transparens. Detta innebär att ingen leverantör ska diskrimineras på någon grund utan alla ska få samma förutsättningar. Upphandlingen ska också präglas av öppenhet och transparens.

Det finns dock vissa undantagssituationer när huvudregeln om upphandling inte behöver beaktas av myndigheten. Ett sådant undantag är när myndigheten bedriver verksamheten i egen regi vilket benämns som in house-verksamhet. Någon definition på in house finns inte i direktiven men som utgångspunkt rör det sig om situationer när både beställare och leverantör finns inom samma juridiska person. Genom EU-domstolens praxis har ett så kallat in house-undantag växt fram, vilket innebär att även fristående enheter utanför den juridiska personen omfattas av undantaget från upphandlingsskyldighet. Detta gäller endast om de så kallade Teckal-kriterierna bestående av kontroll- och verksamhetskriteriet är uppfyllda gentemot den fristående enheten. För att kontrollkriteriet ska vara uppfyllt krävs att den upphandlande myndigheten har sådan kontroll över den fristående enheten som motsvarar den kontroll som myndigheten själv har över sin egen verksamhet. Verksamhetskriteriet uppfylls om den fristående enheten utövar huvuddelen av sin verksamhet tillsammans med den upphandlande myndigheten. Om dessa kriterier uppfylls skulle en upphandlande kommunal myndighet ej behöva upphandla vid köp från hel eller delägt aktiebolag, trots att detta aktiebolag är en fristående juridisk person. Med anledning av denna och efterföljande praxis infördes ett temporärt in house-undantag i den svenska rätten genom 2 kap. 10a § LOU. OFUKI-utredningen har i sitt betänkande gett förslag på bl.a. ett permanent in house-undantag i LOU. Nyligen lade regeringen också fram sin proposition 2011/12:106 vilken till stor del instämmer i OFUKI-utredningens lagförslag. Utformningen och räckvidden av det föreslagna in house-undantaget kan enligt min åsikt starkt kritiseras. Det utesluter möjligheten att tillämpa det utvidgade in house-undantaget i koncernsituationer vilket begränsar det kommunala självstyret med friheten att själv organisera sin verksamhet. OFUKI-utredningen och regeringen föreslår också kompletteringar i KL angående de kommunalrättsliga principerna och de kommunala bolagen. (Less)
Abstract
All procurement of goods, services and works made in the public sector shall in principle be preceded by public procurement. Public procurement can be defined as a selection process with some elements that finally leads to that the contracting authority signs a contract with the winning supplier. The procurement legal framework in the EU mainly consists of two directives; directive 2004/18/EC and directive 2004/17/EC. These directives are based in turn on the EUF- treaty which aims to achieve the internal market and ensure there is a good and fair competition within the European Union. The basic principles of Community law must also be considered in all public procurement. This relates for example to the principle of non-discrimination,... (More)
All procurement of goods, services and works made in the public sector shall in principle be preceded by public procurement. Public procurement can be defined as a selection process with some elements that finally leads to that the contracting authority signs a contract with the winning supplier. The procurement legal framework in the EU mainly consists of two directives; directive 2004/18/EC and directive 2004/17/EC. These directives are based in turn on the EUF- treaty which aims to achieve the internal market and ensure there is a good and fair competition within the European Union. The basic principles of Community law must also be considered in all public procurement. This relates for example to the principle of non-discrimination, equal treatment and transparency. This means that no supplier should be discriminated on any basis and they should all receive equal opportunities. The public procurement should also be characterized by openness and transparency.

There are some exceptional situations where the basic rule of public procurement not needs to be observed by the authority. One such exception is when the authority carries on the activity under it´s own management which is called in house-managment. There is no direct definition on in house in the directives but the starting point is that it should be a situation where the client and the supplier are in the same juridical person. The European Court of Justice has with its practice created a in house-exception to include detached units which are outside juridical person. This applies only if the so called Teckal-criteria, consisting of control- and activity criteria, are fulfilled in relation to the external unity. The control criteria is fulfilled if the contracting authority has a control over the detached unit that corresponds to the control that the authority itself has over its own activity. The activity criteria is fulfilled if the detached unit is exercising most of its activity with the authority. If these criteria are fulfilled would a contracting authority not need to procurement when the authority buys from a completely or part owned corporation, even if that corporation is a own juridical person. Because of the Teckal-criteria and following practice a temporary in house-exception was established in the Swedish law in chapter 2 10a § LOU. OFUKI-investigation has in its report made proposals on, inter alia, a permanent in house-exception in the LOU. Recently the government presented it´s government bill 2011/12:106 which mostly agree with OFUKI-investigation law proposal. The design and reach of the proposed in house-exception can in my opinion be strongly criticized. It excludes the possibility of applying the extended in house-exception in concern situations which is limiting the local self- government whit the freedom to self organize the activities. The OFUKI-investigation also suggests additions to KL about the municipal law principles and the municipal companies. (Less)
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author
Cronkvist, Maria LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
About the contracting local authority's procurement obligation to the full-and part-owned limited company
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Förvaltningsrätt Konkurrensrätt EU-rätt
language
Swedish
id
2587846
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 10:51:30
date last changed
2012-10-15 10:51:30
@misc{2587846,
  abstract     = {All procurement of goods, services and works made in the public sector shall in principle be preceded by public procurement. Public procurement can be defined as a selection process with some elements that finally leads to that the contracting authority signs a contract with the winning supplier. The procurement legal framework in the EU mainly consists of two directives; directive 2004/18/EC and directive 2004/17/EC. These directives are based in turn on the EUF- treaty which aims to achieve the internal market and ensure there is a good and fair competition within the European Union. The basic principles of Community law must also be considered in all public procurement. This relates for example to the principle of non-discrimination, equal treatment and transparency. This means that no supplier should be discriminated on any basis and they should all receive equal opportunities. The public procurement should also be characterized by openness and transparency. 

There are some exceptional situations where the basic rule of public procurement not needs to be observed by the authority. One such exception is when the authority carries on the activity under it´s own management which is called in house-managment. There is no direct definition on in house in the directives but the starting point is that it should be a situation where the client and the supplier are in the same juridical person. The European Court of Justice has with its practice created a in house-exception to include detached units which are outside juridical person. This applies only if the so called Teckal-criteria, consisting of control- and activity criteria, are fulfilled in relation to the external unity. The control criteria is fulfilled if the contracting authority has a control over the detached unit that corresponds to the control that the authority itself has over its own activity. The activity criteria is fulfilled if the detached unit is exercising most of its activity with the authority. If these criteria are fulfilled would a contracting authority not need to procurement when the authority buys from a completely or part owned corporation, even if that corporation is a own juridical person. Because of the Teckal-criteria and following practice a temporary in house-exception was established in the Swedish law in chapter 2 10a § LOU. OFUKI-investigation has in its report made proposals on, inter alia, a permanent in house-exception in the LOU. Recently the government presented it´s government bill 2011/12:106 which mostly agree with OFUKI-investigation law proposal. The design and reach of the proposed in house-exception can in my opinion be strongly criticized. It excludes the possibility of applying the extended in house-exception in concern situations which is limiting the local self- government whit the freedom to self organize the activities. The OFUKI-investigation also suggests additions to KL about the municipal law principles and the municipal companies.},
  author       = {Cronkvist, Maria},
  keyword      = {Förvaltningsrätt Konkurrensrätt EU-rätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Om den upphandlande kommunala myndighetens upphandlingsskyldighet gentemot hel- och delägt aktiebolag},
  year         = {2012},
}