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För det är skönt att slå – Bedömning av våld vid BDSM-utövning

Andersson, Fredrik LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Då HovR över Skåne och Blekinge, mål nr. B 2802-10, avkunnade sin dom den 21 september 2011 hade ytterligare en frikännande misshandelsdom behandlats av det svenska rättssystemet. Den tilltalade hade piskat målsäganden med olika redskap så att skador uppkommit. Det som skiljde detta mål från ett vanligt misshandelsmål, var att målsäganden hade samtyckt till de olika handlingarna, som en del av ett BDSM-rollspel. Målsäganden hade frivilligt godkänt att den tilltalade utfört de beskrivna handlingarna. Domstolen ställdes här inför frågan om det var möjligt att samtycka till de uppkomna skadorna. Domstolen fastställde i detta fall att de utförda handlingarna var av sådan karaktär att det fanns möjlighet att samtycka till dem, då ändamålet med... (More)
Då HovR över Skåne och Blekinge, mål nr. B 2802-10, avkunnade sin dom den 21 september 2011 hade ytterligare en frikännande misshandelsdom behandlats av det svenska rättssystemet. Den tilltalade hade piskat målsäganden med olika redskap så att skador uppkommit. Det som skiljde detta mål från ett vanligt misshandelsmål, var att målsäganden hade samtyckt till de olika handlingarna, som en del av ett BDSM-rollspel. Målsäganden hade frivilligt godkänt att den tilltalade utfört de beskrivna handlingarna. Domstolen ställdes här inför frågan om det var möjligt att samtycka till de uppkomna skadorna. Domstolen fastställde i detta fall att de utförda handlingarna var av sådan karaktär att det fanns möjlighet att samtycka till dem, då ändamålet med handlingarna var att tillfredsställa målsäganden. Dock har rättsfallet skapat frågan om hur mycket våld det är möjligt att samtycka till vid BDSM-utövning.

Möjligheten att samtycka till våldshandlingar finns beskrivna i BrB 24 kap. 7§, som utläses ” (e)n gärning som någon begår med samtycke från den mot vilken den riktas utgör brott endast om gärningen, med hänsyn till den skada, kränkning eller fara som den medför, dess syfte och övriga omständigheter, är oförsvarlig”. Denna lag öppnar upp möjligheten att samtycka till handlingar som annars skulle anses vara oförsvarbara. Dock kan inte denna ansvarsfrihetsgrund behandla alla de handlingar som samhället anser vara acceptabla. För att handlingar så som operationer och idrottsutövning ska kunna utföras, har därför oskrivna undantagsregler utvecklas. På detta sätt kan även dessa handlingar vinna laglig grund för sin utövning.

Beträffande möjligheten att samtycka till våldssex, eller BDSM, har det varit en fråga som domstolarna ställts inför många gånger tidigare. Dock har domstolarna avvärjt att ta ställning i frågan, antingen genom att endast behandla vems historia som är mest sannolik, eller att konstatera att samtycke saknas. Denna ignorans har gått obemärkt förbi fram till att ovan beskrivna rättsfall kom upp på agendan. Nu väcktes också frågan om bland annat idrottens och plastikkirurgins legitimitet. Ska dessa verksamheter vinna acceptans i samhället, medan BDSM-utövare riskerar åtal? För att legitimera dessa utvidgade områden, vänder sig samhället till det mervärde som handlingarna medför. Att kunna uttrycka sig sexuellt är även det ett mervärde som inte kan ignoreras i diskussionen och något som också har lyfts fram.

Då domstolarna inte tidigare behandlat frågan om samtycke, är det svårt att veta hur mycket det är möjligt att samtycka till. Detta är istället något som måste växa fram med praxis på området. Det enda som tydligt går att utläsa är att riskerna, som det finns möjlighet att samtycka till, måste kunna förutses. Handlingarna måste vara en naturlig följd av utövningen, för att de ska anses vara acceptabla.

Rörande möjligheten för en utvidgad våldsutövning vid BDSM, har detta ännu inte prövats. Dock måste det anses förvånande att kunna legitimera idrott med hänvisning till att utövarna mår bättre psykiskt, utan att BDSM-utövarna får använda sig av liknande argument. Att inte kunna uttrycka sig på ett för en själv naturligt sätt, leder istället till att utövarna mår psykiskt dåligt. Även den sexuella tillfredsställelsen måste lyftas fram som mervärde av betydelse. Detta kan även studeras i domskälen från hovrätten över Skåne och Blekinge, mål B 2802-10. Utifrån dessa grunder får BDSM-utövning anses kunna underordnas de oskrivna ansvarsfrihetsregler som bland annat legitimerar våld inom idrott.

Dock leder inte utvidgningen till obegränsad frihet vid BDSM-utövning. Förarbetena måste fortfarande respekteras och därför kan aldrig handlingar som leder till att någon uppsåtligen blir dödad, vara ansvarsbefriande. Att uppsåtligt skada varandra till den grad att utövarna måste besöka ett sjukhus, är även det något som måste ifrågasättas. Detta då dessa handlingar leder till att utövningen tar sig från den privata sfären, för att istället påverka samhället socioekonomiskt.

Iakttas dessa argument kommer det att växa fram en mer förutsägbar och likställd bedömning av handlingar det är möjligt att samtycka till. (Less)
Abstract
As the Court of Appeals for Skåne and Blekinge, case no. B 2802-10, gave its judgment on September 21, 2011, was yet another acquittal assault judgment processed by the Swedish judicial system. The accused had hit the victim with different instruments in a way that caused damage to the plaintiff. However, what distinguishes this case from an ordinary assaultcase was that the plaintiff had consented to the various actions, as part of a BDSM role play. The plaintiff had voluntarily agreed that the accused carried out the activities described. The court therefore asked whether it was possible to consent to the damages described in this case. The Court ruled that the performed actions were of such character that it was possible to consent to... (More)
As the Court of Appeals for Skåne and Blekinge, case no. B 2802-10, gave its judgment on September 21, 2011, was yet another acquittal assault judgment processed by the Swedish judicial system. The accused had hit the victim with different instruments in a way that caused damage to the plaintiff. However, what distinguishes this case from an ordinary assaultcase was that the plaintiff had consented to the various actions, as part of a BDSM role play. The plaintiff had voluntarily agreed that the accused carried out the activities described. The court therefore asked whether it was possible to consent to the damages described in this case. The Court ruled that the performed actions were of such character that it was possible to consent to them. One of the reasons was that the goal of the actions was to satisfy the plaintiff. The case has nevertheless created the question of how much violence it really is possible to agree to, in the BDSM practice.

The opportunities to consent to actions of violence are described in the Penal Code Chapter 24. § 7, which read "(a)n act that someone commits with the consent of the person against whom it is directed is a violation only if the act, taking account of the damage, violation or danger it presents, its purpose and other circumstances, is unjustifiable". This law opens up the opportunity to consent to actions that otherwise would be considered indefensible. However, this discharge ground can’t include all those actions that the society considers acceptable. For the possibility to exercise actions like surgery and sports the system has developed unwritten exceptions. In this way, these actions gain legal ground.

Regarding the possibility of consenting to violence as a part of the sexual activities, or BDSM, has been a question the courts have been dealing with many times before. However, courts have averted to take any position, by either deal with whose history is most probable, or to conclude the absence of consent. This ignorance has been unnoticed until the previous described case was trialed. Now the question about sports and plastic surgeries legitimacy has also been brought up to attention. Should these activities gain acceptance in society, while BDSM practitioners are risking prosecution? In order to legitimize these areas, society needs to value the significance of these actions. Being able to express yourself sexually is an added value, that can’t be ignored in the discussion.

As the courts never have addressed the issue of consent, it’s difficult to know how much it’s possible to agree to. Instead, this is something that must be developed with the case law. The only thing that can be determined is that the action must be predictable consequence of the consent. The action must be a natural consequence of exercise, to be considered acceptable.

Regarding the possibility of an expanded use of violence in the BDSM, this has not been trialed yet. However, it must be considered surprising to legitimize sport on the grounds that the practitioners are feeling better mentally when BDSM practitioners can’t use similar arguments. Not being able to express yourselves in your own naturally way, causing the practitioners to feel mentally ill. Even the sexual satisfaction must be valued as important. This can be studied in the case law from the Court of Appeal over Skåne and Blekinge, case B 2802-10. Based on these grounds BDSM practice is considered to be subordinated the unwritten rules, which among other things legitimizes violence in sport.

The described extension does not give an unlimited freedom in BDSM practice. The legislative history must still be respected, which leads to that intentional killing never can be accepted. To intentionally harm one another to the point that practitioners have to visit a hospital is something that also must be questioned. These actions move the performances from the private sphere, and instead affect society in a socio-economically way.

If these arguments are regarded, there will emerge a more predictable and equal assessment of the actions it’s possible to agree to. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Andersson, Fredrik LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Because it feels good to hit – Assessment of violence in BDSM-practice
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, samtycke
language
Swedish
id
2607551
date added to LUP
2012-08-31 15:53:01
date last changed
2012-08-31 15:53:01
@misc{2607551,
  abstract     = {As the Court of Appeals for Skåne and Blekinge, case no. B 2802-10, gave its judgment on September 21, 2011, was yet another acquittal assault judgment processed by the Swedish judicial system. The accused had hit the victim with different instruments in a way that caused damage to the plaintiff. However, what distinguishes this case from an ordinary assaultcase was that the plaintiff had consented to the various actions, as part of a BDSM role play. The plaintiff had voluntarily agreed that the accused carried out the activities described. The court therefore asked whether it was possible to consent to the damages described in this case. The Court ruled that the performed actions were of such character that it was possible to consent to them. One of the reasons was that the goal of the actions was to satisfy the plaintiff. The case has nevertheless created the question of how much violence it really is possible to agree to, in the BDSM practice.

The opportunities to consent to actions of violence are described in the Penal Code Chapter 24. § 7, which read "(a)n act that someone commits with the consent of the person against whom it is directed is a violation only if the act, taking account of the damage, violation or danger it presents, its purpose and other circumstances, is unjustifiable". This law opens up the opportunity to consent to actions that otherwise would be considered indefensible. However, this discharge ground can’t include all those actions that the society considers acceptable. For the possibility to exercise actions like surgery and sports the system has developed unwritten exceptions. In this way, these actions gain legal ground.

Regarding the possibility of consenting to violence as a part of the sexual activities, or BDSM, has been a question the courts have been dealing with many times before. However, courts have averted to take any position, by either deal with whose history is most probable, or to conclude the absence of consent. This ignorance has been unnoticed until the previous described case was trialed. Now the question about sports and plastic surgeries legitimacy has also been brought up to attention. Should these activities gain acceptance in society, while BDSM practitioners are risking prosecution? In order to legitimize these areas, society needs to value the significance of these actions. Being able to express yourself sexually is an added value, that can’t be ignored in the discussion.

As the courts never have addressed the issue of consent, it’s difficult to know how much it’s possible to agree to. Instead, this is something that must be developed with the case law. The only thing that can be determined is that the action must be predictable consequence of the consent. The action must be a natural consequence of exercise, to be considered acceptable.

Regarding the possibility of an expanded use of violence in the BDSM, this has not been trialed yet. However, it must be considered surprising to legitimize sport on the grounds that the practitioners are feeling better mentally when BDSM practitioners can’t use similar arguments. Not being able to express yourselves in your own naturally way, causing the practitioners to feel mentally ill. Even the sexual satisfaction must be valued as important. This can be studied in the case law from the Court of Appeal over Skåne and Blekinge, case B 2802-10. Based on these grounds BDSM practice is considered to be subordinated the unwritten rules, which among other things legitimizes violence in sport.

The described extension does not give an unlimited freedom in BDSM practice. The legislative history must still be respected, which leads to that intentional killing never can be accepted. To intentionally harm one another to the point that practitioners have to visit a hospital is something that also must be questioned. These actions move the performances from the private sphere, and instead affect society in a socio-economically way.

If these arguments are regarded, there will emerge a more predictable and equal assessment of the actions it’s possible to agree to.},
  author       = {Andersson, Fredrik},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,samtycke},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {För det är skönt att slå – Bedömning av våld vid BDSM-utövning},
  year         = {2012},
}