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Ballast Water Management Legal Approaches

Ohlsson, Li LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Spridningen av främmande invasiva arter i den marina miljön genom
barlastvatten och andra bärare har blivit fastställt som ett av de fyra största
hoten mot världshaven, men trots detta har problemet blivit lite
uppmärksammat av allmänheten. Under de senaste decennierna har
spektakulära fall av invasioner, såsom t.ex. spridningen av
vandringsmusslan till de amerikanska och kanadensiska Stora sjöarna, gjort
att problemet uppmärksammats internationellt. Responsen har till stor del
utgjorts av frivilliga åtgärder som mestadels har varit fokuserade på skifte
av barlastvatten. Detta har gjort att denna metod har blivit den vanligaste
implementerade åtgärden, trots att metoden allmänt anses som förknippad
med risker och som otillräcklig... (More)
Spridningen av främmande invasiva arter i den marina miljön genom
barlastvatten och andra bärare har blivit fastställt som ett av de fyra största
hoten mot världshaven, men trots detta har problemet blivit lite
uppmärksammat av allmänheten. Under de senaste decennierna har
spektakulära fall av invasioner, såsom t.ex. spridningen av
vandringsmusslan till de amerikanska och kanadensiska Stora sjöarna, gjort
att problemet uppmärksammats internationellt. Responsen har till stor del
utgjorts av frivilliga åtgärder som mestadels har varit fokuserade på skifte
av barlastvatten. Detta har gjort att denna metod har blivit den vanligaste
implementerade åtgärden, trots att metoden allmänt anses som förknippad
med risker och som otillräcklig för att kunna begränsa den oavsiktliga
spridningen av arter.
2004 färdigställde IMO den internationella barlastvattenkonventionen, det
första övergripande och bindande dokumentet inom internationell lag på
området, som beräknas träda i kraft under 2013. Konvention har inkluderat
skifte av barlastvatten som ett krav för en del fartyg men metoden kommer
att fasas ut och ersättas av en strängare standard. Denna standard kräver att
det finns barlastvattenhanteringssystem ombord för att säkerställa att antalet
livskraftiga organismer som släpps ut med barlastvattnet hålls på ett
minimum. Konventionen är ett stort steg framåt men dess framgång kommer
att bero på om den lyckas etablera sig globalt och om utvecklingsländer
ansluter sig och kan implementera den. Resursskillnaden stater emellan är
den största utmaningen, vilken förhoppningsvis kan överkommas genom
internationellt samarbete och därigenom spridning av resurser och kunskap.
Samarbete på regional nivå är lika viktigt som att ha ett globalt perspektiv
om barlastvattenfrågan ska få en lösning. För Europas del har EU varken
agerat snabbt eller bestämt i frågan och det finns för närvarande ingen
gemensam barlastvattenpolicy. Detta är olyckligt för den marina miljön men
även för handelsmöjligheterna för en del av EU:s medlemsstater. Det är
åsikten av denna uppsats att den gemensamma EU-strategi angående
invasiva främmande arter, som för närvarande håller på att upprättas, bör
innehålla ett gemensamt ställningstagande i barlastvattenfrågan. Detta
ställningstagande bör utmynna i obligatoriska åtgärder.
Då Sverige måste ta hänsyn både till viktiga fartygsleder och känsliga
marina miljöer såsom Östersjön så kan det uppfattas som förvånande att
Sverige saknar gällande regleringar för barlastvatten. Dock har Sverige
anslutit sig till den internationella barlastvattenkonventionen och gjort de
förberedelser som anslutningen kräver. Barlastvattenlagen har omvandlat
konventionens legala substans till svensk lag och den nya lagen kommer att
träda i kraft när konventionen träder i kraft. Med hänsyn till Sveriges
medlemskap i EU och då unionen ännu inte har beslutat om eventuella
gemensamma åtgärder är det rimligt att inga ytterligare åtgärder vidtagits. (Less)
Abstract
The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by
ships’ ballast water and via other vectors has been identified as one of the
four greatest threats to the world’s oceans and yet this problem has gained
little public attention. In the last few decades dramatic invasions, such as
e.g. the spread of the zebra mussel in the Great Lakes marine area of the
USA and Canada, have brought the issue to the attention of the world’s
policymakers. The international response has in largely consisted of
voluntary measures that have been focused on ballast water exchange. This
method has become the most commonly implemented ballast water
management measure, despite the fact that it is increasingly considered as
unsafe and... (More)
The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by
ships’ ballast water and via other vectors has been identified as one of the
four greatest threats to the world’s oceans and yet this problem has gained
little public attention. In the last few decades dramatic invasions, such as
e.g. the spread of the zebra mussel in the Great Lakes marine area of the
USA and Canada, have brought the issue to the attention of the world’s
policymakers. The international response has in largely consisted of
voluntary measures that have been focused on ballast water exchange. This
method has become the most commonly implemented ballast water
management measure, despite the fact that it is increasingly considered as
unsafe and inadequate for controlling unintentional species transfer.
In 2004 the IMO concluded the International Convention on the Control and
Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, the first
comprehensive and binding international legal instrument on the issue,
expected to enter into force during 2013. The convention includes ballast
water exchange as a requirement, but this method will be phased out and
replaced by a more stringent ballast water performance standard. This will
require onboard treatment systems to ensure that the amounts of viable
organisms that are released with the ballast water are at a minimum. The
convention is a significant step forward, but its success will depend on if it
can be acceded and implemented globally, also by the less-industrialised
states. The disparity amongst states in terms of resources will be the greatest
challenge, a challenge that hopefully can be overcome by international
cooperation and the sharing of resources and knowledge.
Regional cooperation is as important as the global perspective for solving
the ballast water problem. In Europe the EU has responded slowly and
indecisively and there is currently no common EU policy on ballast water.
This is unfortunate and could adversely affect both the marine environment
of the whole region and trade for some of the EU states. This thesis suggests
that the EU common strategy on invasive species, which is currently being
developed, should contain a common approach on ballast water
management based on mandatory measures.
Having both important shipping routes and sensitive marine environments
such as the Baltic Sea to consider it may appear as surprising that Sweden
has no ballast water regulations that are in effect. However, Sweden has
acceded the international convention and made the adequate preparations for
its entry into force. The new Swedish ballast water law has transformed the
substance of the convention into Swedish law, and it will become effective
following the convention’s entry into force. That these are the only steps
that have been taken is reasonable considering the EU membership and that
the union has not yet decided on possible common measures. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ohlsson, Li LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Ballast water, Environmental Law
language
English
id
2607628
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 11:41:12
date last changed
2012-10-15 11:41:12
@misc{2607628,
  abstract     = {The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by
ships’ ballast water and via other vectors has been identified as one of the
four greatest threats to the world’s oceans and yet this problem has gained
little public attention. In the last few decades dramatic invasions, such as
e.g. the spread of the zebra mussel in the Great Lakes marine area of the
USA and Canada, have brought the issue to the attention of the world’s
policymakers. The international response has in largely consisted of
voluntary measures that have been focused on ballast water exchange. This
method has become the most commonly implemented ballast water
management measure, despite the fact that it is increasingly considered as
unsafe and inadequate for controlling unintentional species transfer.
In 2004 the IMO concluded the International Convention on the Control and
Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, the first
comprehensive and binding international legal instrument on the issue,
expected to enter into force during 2013. The convention includes ballast
water exchange as a requirement, but this method will be phased out and
replaced by a more stringent ballast water performance standard. This will
require onboard treatment systems to ensure that the amounts of viable
organisms that are released with the ballast water are at a minimum. The
convention is a significant step forward, but its success will depend on if it
can be acceded and implemented globally, also by the less-industrialised
states. The disparity amongst states in terms of resources will be the greatest
challenge, a challenge that hopefully can be overcome by international
cooperation and the sharing of resources and knowledge.
Regional cooperation is as important as the global perspective for solving
the ballast water problem. In Europe the EU has responded slowly and
indecisively and there is currently no common EU policy on ballast water.
This is unfortunate and could adversely affect both the marine environment
of the whole region and trade for some of the EU states. This thesis suggests
that the EU common strategy on invasive species, which is currently being
developed, should contain a common approach on ballast water
management based on mandatory measures.
Having both important shipping routes and sensitive marine environments
such as the Baltic Sea to consider it may appear as surprising that Sweden
has no ballast water regulations that are in effect. However, Sweden has
acceded the international convention and made the adequate preparations for
its entry into force. The new Swedish ballast water law has transformed the
substance of the convention into Swedish law, and it will become effective
following the convention’s entry into force. That these are the only steps
that have been taken is reasonable considering the EU membership and that
the union has not yet decided on possible common measures.},
  author       = {Ohlsson, Li},
  keyword      = {Ballast water,Environmental Law},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Ballast Water Management Legal Approaches},
  year         = {2012},
}