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Umgängesstöd - en familjerättslig studie av gällande rätt och praktik

Persdotter, Maria LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract
This thesis is written within the field of family law, covering the problematic area of access right where the court decides that supervised access is going to be used in order to obtain the child’s right to meet and have contact with his or her parents. To obtain an adequate general idea about how supervised access is used, I have chosen to explore a) how the intervention is intended to work in Sweden, b) how the new requirement regarding limited time has changed the applicability regarding supervised access, c) on which occasions the court order the intervention and d) what consequences this brings to the child and parents involved.

A child has certain rights in relation to his or her parents, one of them being the right to meet the... (More)
This thesis is written within the field of family law, covering the problematic area of access right where the court decides that supervised access is going to be used in order to obtain the child’s right to meet and have contact with his or her parents. To obtain an adequate general idea about how supervised access is used, I have chosen to explore a) how the intervention is intended to work in Sweden, b) how the new requirement regarding limited time has changed the applicability regarding supervised access, c) on which occasions the court order the intervention and d) what consequences this brings to the child and parents involved.

A child has certain rights in relation to his or her parents, one of them being the right to meet the parents and the right to have good contact with both the mother and the father. Adding to that, the child has a right not to be badly treated when meeting the parents, which involves problems since this is creating a difficult balance between the different rights. Because of this, supervised access is used as help and support at times of access which for some reason should be supervised.

The intervention supervised access was subject to a legislative amendment in August 2010, which now means that the court can order the National Board of Health & Welfare to organize and evaluate the access intervention. A time limit of one year was also introduced, which means that if the court does not appreciate that normal access can work within a year, then supervised access should not be used and access therefore should not take place at all. This time limit involves higher requirements and demands from the investigations made by the court and the National Board of Health & Welfare since they have to appreciate how the relationship between the child and parent is going to evolve and develop for a period of time. The National Board of Health & Welfare is also responsible for following-up the access in a careful way, to ascertain that the intervention does not last longer than necessary.

This essay furthermore discusses legal practice concerning risk-associated access right cases and how this risk should be assessed. Additionally, this essay studies legal practice regarding supervised access in order to illustrate how the Courts of Appeals are deliberating regarding the new supervised access legislation; when is supervised access suggested to be an appropriate action, and in which situations is it inappropriate for any right of access to occur? To assist me I have interviewed a specialist at the National Board of Health & Welfare and a judge at the District Court in Lund working within this area of the Swedish law to obtain an understanding about their reasoning regarding the work with supervised access.

The child, the parent with custody and the parent who has access right often have divergent opinions regarding how this intervention should function and what the true outcome of the intervention has been. There is some relevant research showing that many processes of access are stopped as soon as the supervised access intervention is stopped. This is one of the shortcomings I will highlight in my analysis. I will also explore and comment on other difficulties related to the intervention; are the rights of parents too strong in Sweden at the expense of the child’s wishes, and is supervised access a good way to promote access between the child and parent? (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats är ett examensarbete i juris kandidatprogrammet. Uppsatsen är skriven inom området familjerätt och behandlar problemområdet riskfyllda umgängen där domstolen förordnar om umgängesstöd för att tillvarata barnets rätt till umgänge. Jag kommer i uppsatsen redogöra för hur de rättigheter som ett barn har i förhållande till sina föräldrar ser ut, däribland rätten till umgänge och rätten till en god kontakt med båda föräldrar. Därtill besitter barnet en rätt att inte fara illa vid umgänge, vilket problematiserar situationen och skapar en svår avvägning mellan de olika rättigheterna. Dessa rättigheter äger barnet både enligt svensk rätt och internationella konventioner, såsom FN:s konvention om barnets rättigheter. Vid ett sakläge... (More)
Denna uppsats är ett examensarbete i juris kandidatprogrammet. Uppsatsen är skriven inom området familjerätt och behandlar problemområdet riskfyllda umgängen där domstolen förordnar om umgängesstöd för att tillvarata barnets rätt till umgänge. Jag kommer i uppsatsen redogöra för hur de rättigheter som ett barn har i förhållande till sina föräldrar ser ut, däribland rätten till umgänge och rätten till en god kontakt med båda föräldrar. Därtill besitter barnet en rätt att inte fara illa vid umgänge, vilket problematiserar situationen och skapar en svår avvägning mellan de olika rättigheterna. Dessa rättigheter äger barnet både enligt svensk rätt och internationella konventioner, såsom FN:s konvention om barnets rättigheter. Vid ett sakläge där det konstateras att viss risk föreligger kan domstolen förordna om umgängesstöd för att tillgodose barnets rättigheter och agera som ett stöd vid umgänge som av någon anledning bör vara övervakade. För att få en bra överblick av när och hur umgängesstöd används har jag valt att undersöka hur åtgärden umgängesstöd skall fungera i Sverige, hur det nya tidsbegränsningskravet har förändrat tillämpningen av umgängesstöd, vid vilka tillfällen domstolen förordnar om insatsen samt vilka praktiska konsekvenser detta får för de inblandade.
Insatsen umgängesstöd var i augusti 2010 föremål för en lagändring som innebar att domstolen nu gavs rätt att ge socialnämnden i uppdrag att anordna och följa upp insatsen. Det infördes även en tidsbegränsning om ett år, vilket innebär att då domstolen inte uppskattar att ett normalt umgänge kan komma till stånd inom ett år, så skall inte umgängesstöd användas och umgänge skall således inte ske. Denna tidsbegränsning ställer högre krav på domstolen och socialtjänstens utredningsarbete då de måste uppskatta hur barnet och förälderns relation och umgänge kan komma att se ut och utvecklas. Socialnämnden skall även följa upp umgänget på ett noggrant sätt för att tillse att insatsen inte varar längre än nödvändigt. Med anledning härav anser jag det vara av intresse att redogöra för hur denna lagförändring i praktiken tagit form och hur domstolen nu tillämpar umgängesstöd.
Uppsatsen behandlar även rättspraxis rörande riskfyllda umgängen och hur denna risk skall bedömas, samt rättspraxis angående umgängesstöd för att visa på hur hovrätterna har tänkt kring den nya lagstiftningen om umgängesstöd; när anses umgängesstöd vara en lämplig åtgärd och när skall umgänge överhuvudtaget inte föreligga mellan barn och umgängesförälder? Till min hjälp har jag också använt mig av intervjuer med yrkesverksamma personer som arbetar med detta område inom lagen för att få en inblick i hur de tänker kring arbetet med umgängesstöd.
Barnet, boendeföräldern och umgängesföräldern har ofta tämligen olika uppfattningar om hur insatsen bör fungera och hur det i realiteten har gått. Det finns även forskning som visar på att många umgängen avslutas i samband med att umgängesstödsinsatsen avslutas. Detta är ett av de
4 problem som jag pekar på i min analys. I analysen tar jag även upp andra svårigheter som är relaterade till insatsen; är föräldrarätten alltför stark i Sverige på bekostnad av barnets vilja samt är umgängesstöd en tillfredställande insats att använda sig av för att främja umgänge mellan barn och förälder? (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Persdotter, Maria LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Supervised access
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Family law., Supervised access
language
Swedish
id
2628914
date added to LUP
2012-08-31 15:58:56
date last changed
2012-08-31 15:58:56
@misc{2628914,
  abstract     = {This thesis is written within the field of family law, covering the problematic area of access right where the court decides that supervised access is going to be used in order to obtain the child’s right to meet and have contact with his or her parents. To obtain an adequate general idea about how supervised access is used, I have chosen to explore a) how the intervention is intended to work in Sweden, b) how the new requirement regarding limited time has changed the applicability regarding supervised access, c) on which occasions the court order the intervention and d) what consequences this brings to the child and parents involved. 

A child has certain rights in relation to his or her parents, one of them being the right to meet the parents and the right to have good contact with both the mother and the father. Adding to that, the child has a right not to be badly treated when meeting the parents, which involves problems since this is creating a difficult balance between the different rights. Because of this, supervised access is used as help and support at times of access which for some reason should be supervised.

The intervention supervised access was subject to a legislative amendment in August 2010, which now means that the court can order the National Board of Health & Welfare to organize and evaluate the access intervention. A time limit of one year was also introduced, which means that if the court does not appreciate that normal access can work within a year, then supervised access should not be used and access therefore should not take place at all. This time limit involves higher requirements and demands from the investigations made by the court and the National Board of Health & Welfare since they have to appreciate how the relationship between the child and parent is going to evolve and develop for a period of time. The National Board of Health & Welfare is also responsible for following-up the access in a careful way, to ascertain that the intervention does not last longer than necessary. 

This essay furthermore discusses legal practice concerning risk-associated access right cases and how this risk should be assessed. Additionally, this essay studies legal practice regarding supervised access in order to illustrate how the Courts of Appeals are deliberating regarding the new supervised access legislation; when is supervised access suggested to be an appropriate action, and in which situations is it inappropriate for any right of access to occur? To assist me I have interviewed a specialist at the National Board of Health & Welfare and a judge at the District Court in Lund working within this area of the Swedish law to obtain an understanding about their reasoning regarding the work with supervised access. 

The child, the parent with custody and the parent who has access right often have divergent opinions regarding how this intervention should function and what the true outcome of the intervention has been. There is some relevant research showing that many processes of access are stopped as soon as the supervised access intervention is stopped. This is one of the shortcomings I will highlight in my analysis. I will also explore and comment on other difficulties related to the intervention; are the rights of parents too strong in Sweden at the expense of the child’s wishes, and is supervised access a good way to promote access between the child and parent?},
  author       = {Persdotter, Maria},
  keyword      = {Family law.,Supervised access},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Umgängesstöd - en familjerättslig studie av gällande rätt och praktik},
  year         = {2012},
}