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Undanträngande av utländska kollektivavtal och andra metoder för att bekämpa låglönekonkurrens

Berséus, Wilhelm LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Uppsatsen behandlar undanträngande av utländska kollektivavtal samt metoder för att bekämpa låglönekonkurrens. Med undanträngande av utländskt kollektivavtal avses situationen då en utländsk arbetsgivare som redan är bunden av kollektivavtal utsätts för stridsåtgärder av svenska fackföreningar i syfte att få denne att teckna ett nytt avtal. Undanträngande av utländska kollektivavtal har framförallt använts som en metod för och motiverats av behovet av att bekämpa låglönekonkurrens.
Problemet uppmärksammades vad gäller internationella förhållanden genom domen i Britanniamålet, AD 1989 nr 120. I denna dom uttalade Arbetsdomstolen att stridsåtgärder är olovliga om de syftar till att undantränga eller ändra ett redan befintligt avtal. På... (More)
Uppsatsen behandlar undanträngande av utländska kollektivavtal samt metoder för att bekämpa låglönekonkurrens. Med undanträngande av utländskt kollektivavtal avses situationen då en utländsk arbetsgivare som redan är bunden av kollektivavtal utsätts för stridsåtgärder av svenska fackföreningar i syfte att få denne att teckna ett nytt avtal. Undanträngande av utländska kollektivavtal har framförallt använts som en metod för och motiverats av behovet av att bekämpa låglönekonkurrens.
Problemet uppmärksammades vad gäller internationella förhållanden genom domen i Britanniamålet, AD 1989 nr 120. I denna dom uttalade Arbetsdomstolen att stridsåtgärder är olovliga om de syftar till att undantränga eller ändra ett redan befintligt avtal. På grund av fackliga påtryckningar infördes vissa ändringar i MBL som innebar att stridsåtgärder mot utländsk part skulle vara tillåtna oberoende av om de var bundna av kollektivavtal eller inte. Lagändringen gick under namnet lex Britannia. Ett antal år senare underkändes denna reglering beträffande situationer som träffas av utstationeringslagen genom EU-domstolens dom i Lavalmålet. Följaktligen ändrades utstationeringslagen och MBL så att stridsåtgärder mot arbetsgivare baserade inom EU/EES-området är förbjudna om de syftar till att få till stånd andra villkor än vissa minimivillkor som är angivna i lagen eller som motsvarar villkor i centrala kollektivavtal. Denna reglering vidhålls även gentemot arbetsgivare som utstationerar arbetstagare från tredje land, vilket främst motiveras av en enhetlig rättstillämpning. En väsentlig skillnad när det gäller arbetsgivare från tredje land är dock det krav på arbetstillstånd som uppställs enligt svensk rätt. Sådant tillstånd beviljas i princip endast om lönevillkoren som erbjuds motsvarar vad som normalt utgår till svensk arbetskraft.
När det gäller fartyg är regleringen delvis annorlunda. För det första är utstationeringslagen inte tillämplig på handelsflottan vilket innebär att lex Britannia även fortsättningsvis gäller mot bekvämlighetsflaggade fartyg. I och med EU-domstolens dom i Viking Line-målet står det dock klart att etableringsfriheten enligt dåvarande artikel 43 EG (nuvarande artikel 49 FEUF) kan medföra vissa begränsningar av stridsåtgärder även vad gäller handelsflottan. Ett klargörande i denna del väntas även med anledning av att Arbetsdomstolen kommer att begära förhandsavgörandet i målet M/S Sava Star. I uppsatsen diskuteras även andra alternativ som står till buds för att motverka låglönekonkurrens. Allmängiltigförklaring av kollektivavtal synes fungera väl i vårt grannland Norge vars arbetsmarknadssystem uppvisar stora likheter med det svenska. Ansvaret för lönebildningen ligger då alltjämt på arbetsmarknadens parter. Ett sådant system gynnar även förutsebarheten för de gästande företagen. Lagstiftning om minimilöner gynnar också förutsebarheten för utländska arbetsgivare, men medför också att mycket av ansvaret för lönebildningen flyttas från arbetsmarknadens parter på ett sätt som är främmande för den svenska modellen. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
The essay deals with the the right to take industrial action against an employer who is bound by foreign collective agreements. It also deals with other methods and practices to combat low wage competition. The practice of taking industrial action against a foreign employer who is already bound by a collective agreement has mainly been used as a method of combatting low wage competition. The problem was highlighted regarding disputes at an international level by the judgment in Britannia Case, AD 1989 nr 120. In this judgment the Labour Court deemed that industrial action is unlawful if they seek to displace or modify an existing agreement even if it is foreign. Because of pressure from Swedish trade unions some changes were introduced in... (More)
The essay deals with the the right to take industrial action against an employer who is bound by foreign collective agreements. It also deals with other methods and practices to combat low wage competition. The practice of taking industrial action against a foreign employer who is already bound by a collective agreement has mainly been used as a method of combatting low wage competition. The problem was highlighted regarding disputes at an international level by the judgment in Britannia Case, AD 1989 nr 120. In this judgment the Labour Court deemed that industrial action is unlawful if they seek to displace or modify an existing agreement even if it is foreign. Because of pressure from Swedish trade unions some changes were introduced in MBL, the Swedish Co-Determination Act, which meant that industrial action against foreign parties would be allowed regardless of whether they were already bound by a foreign collective agreement or not. The amendment was called lex Britannia. A few years later this amendment was rejected by the ECJ in its ruling in the Laval case in situations which were covered by the Posting of Workers Directive. The consequence of the ruling is that the the right to take industrial action against employers based in the EU/EEA area are prohibited if they are intended to bring about conditions other than certain minimum conditions specified in the Act or which correspond to conditions in national collective agreements. These rules are applied on employers who post workers from third countries aswell. This solution is motivated by the benefits which come from a consistent application. A significant difference though is that employers from third countries which are not covered by the Posting of Workers Directive are required by Swedish law to fulfill certain conditions in order for their employees to receive a work permit. Such permits are granted only when the terms and conditions of employment offered by the employer are equal or comparable to those which are usually exerted upon the Swedish workforce. The need for industrial action is therefor not as pressing when it comes to these employers. For ships the rules differ to a certain extent. The Posting of Workers Act does not apply to merchant shipping, which means that lex Britannia is still applicable when it comes to collective action against ships sailing under flags of convenience. However, after the European Court of Justice ruling in the Viking Line case, it seems clear that the freedom of establishment under former Article 43 EC (now Article 49 TFEU) may result in some restrictions on the right to take industrial action against vessels which are based within the European Union. A clarification in this regard is also expected since the Swedish Labour Court will request a preliminary ruling in the case M/S Sava Star.

The paper also discusses other options that are available to fight low wage competition. The mechanism for the extension of collective agreements seems to work well in our neighboring country, Norway, where the labour market system presents strong similarities with the Swedish. Responsibility for the wages will, with that method, still be trusted to the trade unions. Such a system also serves to benefit the predictability for the foreign companies.

Legislation on a national minimum wage is also an option as this too serves to benefit the predictability of the costs for an establishment in Sweden, but this alternative will result in a transfer of the responsibility for the wages away from the labour organizations in a way which is foreign to the Swedish model. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Berséus, Wilhelm LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Displacement of foreign collective agreements and other methods for combatting low wage competition
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
arbetsrätt, EU-rätt, internationell processrätt, kollektivavtal, stridsåtgärder, undanträngande av utländska kollektivavtal, Laval, Viking, Saga Star
language
Swedish
id
2688538
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 09:56:19
date last changed
2012-10-15 09:56:19
@misc{2688538,
  abstract     = {The essay deals with the the right to take industrial action against an employer who is bound by foreign collective agreements. It also deals with other methods and practices to combat low wage competition. The practice of taking industrial action against a foreign employer who is already bound by a collective agreement has mainly been used as a method of combatting low wage competition. The problem was highlighted regarding disputes at an international level by the judgment in Britannia Case, AD 1989 nr 120. In this judgment the Labour Court deemed that industrial action is unlawful if they seek to displace or modify an existing agreement even if it is foreign. Because of pressure from Swedish trade unions some changes were introduced in MBL, the Swedish Co-Determination Act, which meant that industrial action against foreign parties would be allowed regardless of whether they were already bound by a foreign collective agreement or not. The amendment was called lex Britannia. A few years later this amendment was rejected by the ECJ in its ruling in the Laval case in situations which were covered by the Posting of Workers Directive. The consequence of the ruling is that the the right to take industrial action against employers based in the EU/EEA area are prohibited if they are intended to bring about conditions other than certain minimum conditions specified in the Act or which correspond to conditions in national collective agreements. These rules are applied on employers who post workers from third countries aswell. This solution is motivated by the benefits which come from a consistent application. A significant difference though is that employers from third countries which are not covered by the Posting of Workers Directive are required by Swedish law to fulfill certain conditions in order for their employees to receive a work permit. Such permits are granted only when the terms and conditions of employment offered by the employer are equal or comparable to those which are usually exerted upon the Swedish workforce. The need for industrial action is therefor not as pressing when it comes to these employers. For ships the rules differ to a certain extent. The Posting of Workers Act does not apply to merchant shipping, which means that lex Britannia is still applicable when it comes to collective action against ships sailing under flags of convenience. However, after the European Court of Justice ruling in the Viking Line case, it seems clear that the freedom of establishment under former Article 43 EC (now Article 49 TFEU) may result in some restrictions on the right to take industrial action against vessels which are based within the European Union. A clarification in this regard is also expected since the Swedish Labour Court will request a preliminary ruling in the case M/S Sava Star.

The paper also discusses other options that are available to fight low wage competition. The mechanism for the extension of collective agreements seems to work well in our neighboring country, Norway, where the labour market system presents strong similarities with the Swedish. Responsibility for the wages will, with that method, still be trusted to the trade unions. Such a system also serves to benefit the predictability for the foreign companies. 

Legislation on a national minimum wage is also an option as this too serves to benefit the predictability of the costs for an establishment in Sweden, but this alternative will result in a transfer of the responsibility for the wages away from the labour organizations in a way which is foreign to the Swedish model.},
  author       = {Berséus, Wilhelm},
  keyword      = {arbetsrätt,EU-rätt,internationell processrätt,kollektivavtal,stridsåtgärder,undanträngande av utländska kollektivavtal,Laval,Viking,Saga Star},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Undanträngande av utländska kollektivavtal och andra metoder för att bekämpa låglönekonkurrens},
  year         = {2012},
}