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Gemensam vårdnad efter separation. Särskilt om konsensuskravet och dess konsekvenser för barns rätt till vård.

Albertson Witting, Louise LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Framställningen syftar till att belysa den svenska vårdnadslagslagstiftningen avseende bestämmanderätten vid gemensam vårdnad samt konsekvenserna av vårdnadshavares oförmåga att samarbeta i frågor som rör barns rätt till vård. Enligt svensk familjerätt är det bästa för barnet att stå under föräldrarnas gemensamma vårdnad samt att föräldrarna tar gemensamma beslut i alla frågor som rör barnet. Nämnda utgångspunkter erkändes när gemensam vårdnad endast kunde utdömas om båda föräldrarna var överens om vårdnadsformen. Sedan 1998 kan domstol emellertid besluta om gemensam vårdnad mot en förälders vilja. Trots detta har utformandet av bestämmanderätten genomgått få förändringar och konsensuskravet är fortfarande lika starkt.


Ovan beskrivna... (More)
Framställningen syftar till att belysa den svenska vårdnadslagslagstiftningen avseende bestämmanderätten vid gemensam vårdnad samt konsekvenserna av vårdnadshavares oförmåga att samarbeta i frågor som rör barns rätt till vård. Enligt svensk familjerätt är det bästa för barnet att stå under föräldrarnas gemensamma vårdnad samt att föräldrarna tar gemensamma beslut i alla frågor som rör barnet. Nämnda utgångspunkter erkändes när gemensam vårdnad endast kunde utdömas om båda föräldrarna var överens om vårdnadsformen. Sedan 1998 kan domstol emellertid besluta om gemensam vårdnad mot en förälders vilja. Trots detta har utformandet av bestämmanderätten genomgått få förändringar och konsensuskravet är fortfarande lika starkt.


Ovan beskrivna omständigheter tenderar att särskilt skapa problem för särlevande föräldrar med gemensamt vårdnadsansvar. Endast då det råder oenighet om vårdnadens utformande, boendet eller umgänget finns det inom ramen för den gemensamma vårdnaden möjlighet att vända sig till domstol för tvistlösning. Brist på konsensus i övriga frågor resulterar i en situation av status quo med uppenbart negativa effekter på barnet. Ett område som under de senaste åren utpekats som särskilt problematiskt är hälso- och sjukvården. Vid avsaknad av konsensusgrundat beslut inom nämnda område återstår inget annat alternativ för en vårdnadshavare än att ansöka om ensam vårdnad eller vård enligt LVU.


I prop. 2011/12:53 behandlades den komplicerande frågan när och hur samhället ska kunna inskränka föräldrars bestämmanderätt i frågor om vård- och behandlingsinsatser av barn. Propositionen avser att reglera den problematik som uppstår när principen om föräldrars i princip undantagslösa bestämmanderätt hamnar i motsättning med barnets rätt till vårdinsatser. Propositionsförslaget innebär en inskränkning i konsensuskravet i det att socialnämnden ges befogenhet att besluta om vård i en vårdnadshavares ställe. En inskränkning är dock endast möjlig under förutsättning att den krävs med hänsyn till barnets bästa och att beslutet gäller bl.a. psykiatrisk eller psykologisk utredning eller behandling enligt HSL. Sedan den 12 maj 2012 utgör förslaget del av gällande rätt i 6 kap. 13 a § FB.


I analysen konstateras att det att föreligger ett starkt stöd för instiftandet av nämnda bestämmelse. Regleringen innebär en försvagning av gemenskapstanken, tillika en förstärkning av barnets bästa och det individualistiska perspektivet. I likhet med framlagda kommentarer under lagstiftningsarbetet, anförs i analysen att socialnämndens beslutskompetens inte bör vara generell men att den somatiska vården ska falla inom ramen för kompetensavgränsningen. (Less)
Abstract
The aim of this thesis is to analyse the current legislation regarding the right of decision under joint legal custody and the absence of legal rules in this area. The thesis furthermore analyses the consequences of the legal requirement of consensus between the parents for all decisions regarding the child, as well as the consequence of the parents inability to cooperate when it comes to the child´s right to medical care and treatment. Swedish family law is based on two presumptions: firstly that the child needs a close contact with both of it´s parents, and secondly that it is in the child´s interest that it´s parents have joint legal custody. Said presumptions were established when joint legal custody could only be resolved provided... (More)
The aim of this thesis is to analyse the current legislation regarding the right of decision under joint legal custody and the absence of legal rules in this area. The thesis furthermore analyses the consequences of the legal requirement of consensus between the parents for all decisions regarding the child, as well as the consequence of the parents inability to cooperate when it comes to the child´s right to medical care and treatment. Swedish family law is based on two presumptions: firstly that the child needs a close contact with both of it´s parents, and secondly that it is in the child´s interest that it´s parents have joint legal custody. Said presumptions were established when joint legal custody could only be resolved provided that the two parents were in agreement on the custody form. Since 1998, the court may however establish joint legal custody with only one parent´s consent. The regulation about right of decision has although not undergone any significant changes. The requirement for consensus is as strong as before 1998.


This legislation tends to cause problems especially when parents with joint custody live apart. The current legislation only enables disagreeing parents to turn to the court for decision when the disagreement is attributable to custody, accommodation or access. Questions related to the child’s right to medical treatment, cannot be solved by dispute. If consensus cannot be reached in such questions, the outcome is a situation of status-quo with obvious negative effects on the child. Irrespective that this issue continuously has been pointed out as a legal area in need of change, no such change has occurred.


In the preparatory works prop. 2011/12:53 the complex question of how and when the society shall have the right to limit parents' authority under the joint custody in respect of medical treatment of children is discussed. The situation that the bill intends to regulate occurs when the principle of parents' discretion in matters affecting the child conflict with the child's right to medical interventions. The presented proposal implies a limitation in the consensus requirement. The Social Services Committee is given the authority to decide when only one of the parents is consenting to advised medical treatment. This discretion provides that the decision is compatible with the interest of the child and that the decision refers to psychiatric or psychological assessment or treatment under the Health and Care Act (1982:763).


In the analysis I find that there is strong support for the suggested limitation in the requirement of consensus concerning the child´s right to medical treatment. The objective should continue to be joint parental responsibility but without an unconditional requirement of joint decisions. The discretion given to the Social Services Committee should be limited but the delimitation should include the area of somatic healthcare. (Less)
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author
Albertson Witting, Louise LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Joint legal custody after separation. The legal requirement of consensus and it's impact on the child's right to medical treatment.
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
gemensam vårdnad, konsensus, hälso-sjukvård
language
Swedish
id
2701494
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 12:57:04
date last changed
2012-10-15 12:57:04
@misc{2701494,
  abstract     = {The aim of this thesis is to analyse the current legislation regarding the right of decision under joint legal custody and the absence of legal rules in this area. The thesis furthermore analyses the consequences of the legal requirement of consensus between the parents for all decisions regarding the child, as well as the consequence of the parents inability to cooperate when it comes to the child´s right to medical care and treatment. Swedish family law is based on two presumptions: firstly that the child needs a close contact with both of it´s parents, and secondly that it is in the child´s interest that it´s parents have joint legal custody. Said presumptions were established when joint legal custody could only be resolved provided that the two parents were in agreement on the custody form. Since 1998, the court may however establish joint legal custody with only one parent´s consent. The regulation about right of decision has although not undergone any significant changes. The requirement for consensus is as strong as before 1998. 


This legislation tends to cause problems especially when parents with joint custody live apart. The current legislation only enables disagreeing parents to turn to the court for decision when the disagreement is attributable to custody, accommodation or access. Questions related to the child’s right to medical treatment, cannot be solved by dispute. If consensus cannot be reached in such questions, the outcome is a situation of status-quo with obvious negative effects on the child. Irrespective that this issue continuously has been pointed out as a legal area in need of change, no such change has occurred.


In the preparatory works prop. 2011/12:53 the complex question of how and when the society shall have the right to limit parents' authority under the joint custody in respect of medical treatment of children is discussed. The situation that the bill intends to regulate occurs when the principle of parents' discretion in matters affecting the child conflict with the child's right to medical interventions. The presented proposal implies a limitation in the consensus requirement. The Social Services Committee is given the authority to decide when only one of the parents is consenting to advised medical treatment. This discretion provides that the decision is compatible with the interest of the child and that the decision refers to psychiatric or psychological assessment or treatment under the Health and Care Act (1982:763).


In the analysis I find that there is strong support for the suggested limitation in the requirement of consensus concerning the child´s right to medical treatment. The objective should continue to be joint parental responsibility but without an unconditional requirement of joint decisions. The discretion given to the Social Services Committee should be limited but the delimitation should include the area of somatic healthcare.},
  author       = {Albertson Witting, Louise},
  keyword      = {gemensam vårdnad,konsensus,hälso-sjukvård},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Gemensam vårdnad efter separation. Särskilt om konsensuskravet och dess konsekvenser för barns rätt till vård.},
  year         = {2012},
}