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Clickwrap och Point-and-click: Att ingå avtal och införliva standardvillkor genom elektroniska klick

Ekblad, Tommie LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I framställningen behandlas frågan om clickwrap och point-and-click kan användas för att tillskapa bundenhet vid vissa standardiserade villkor enligt svensk rätt. Förfarandena innebär att en användare genom ett elektroniskt ”klick” godkänner vissa standardiserade avtalsvillkor utan reell möjlighet att omförhandla dem. De utgör därför typexempel på anslutningsavtal där utbjudaren dikterar villkoren.

För att ett standardavtal ska bli bindande i ett enskilt fall krävs i allmänhet a) att ett avtalsförhållande uppstått och b) att villkoren införlivats i detta förhållande. Metoderna har följaktligen analyserats med dessa båda aspekter som utgångspunkt.

En point-and-click–ruta är delen av ett avtalsformulär på en internethemsida där det... (More)
I framställningen behandlas frågan om clickwrap och point-and-click kan användas för att tillskapa bundenhet vid vissa standardiserade villkor enligt svensk rätt. Förfarandena innebär att en användare genom ett elektroniskt ”klick” godkänner vissa standardiserade avtalsvillkor utan reell möjlighet att omförhandla dem. De utgör därför typexempel på anslutningsavtal där utbjudaren dikterar villkoren.

För att ett standardavtal ska bli bindande i ett enskilt fall krävs i allmänhet a) att ett avtalsförhållande uppstått och b) att villkoren införlivats i detta förhållande. Metoderna har följaktligen analyserats med dessa båda aspekter som utgångspunkt.

En point-and-click–ruta är delen av ett avtalsformulär på en internethemsida där det standardavtal som ska gälla för transaktionen godkänns genom ett ”särskilt klick”.
Att avtal kan slutas på internet råder det allmän konsensus kring även om den teoretiska grunden varierar något och vissa problem möter när traditionella regler tillämpas på avtalen. I sådana avtal kan självklart även standardvillkor införlivas om förhållandena är dem rätta. Point-and-click–metoden innebär ett starkt godkännande av standardvillkoren och kan följaktligen, i kombination med andra åtgärder, användas för att införliva i princip vilka villkor som helst.

Clickwrap–avtal definieras i arbetet som resultatet av ett godkännande som avkrävs en användare vid installation av ett datorprogram. Accepteras inte villkoren kan mjukvaran i regel inte heller installeras.
Framställningen har begränsats till situationer då datorprogrammet återfinns på ett fysiskt medium som användaren köpt i en butik. Det generella resonemanget kan dock, när förhållandena är desamma, användas även när mjukvaran förvärvats över internet eller på annat sätt.
I det läge clickwrap–avtalet initieras har köparen redan betalat för produkten varför bundenhet vid villkoren kan ifrågasättas oavsett att användaren ”godkänt” villkoren på ett sätt liknande det vid point-and-click. Det är således inte främst metoden utan situationen som är kontroversiell. I uppsatsen förespråkas att en analys utifrån principen om avtalsfrihet företas i varje enskilt fall där bl.a. köparens insikt och möjlighet att frångå köpet om denne inte vill godkänna villkoren bör beaktas. (Less)
Abstract
The essay examines whether or not utilization of clickwrap and point-and-click agreements can give rise to legal obligations according to Swedish law. Both methods seek to incorporate and bind users to standardized terms through a “click” without giving any opportunity to negotiate the terms. They are contracts of adhesion, unilaterally put forward and dictated by one of the parties.

For a standard agreement to be binding in a particular case it’s generally required for there a) to actually be an agreement and b) that the terms themselves have been made part of it. The investigated methods are consequently analyzed with the basis of these two aspects.

A point-and-click¬ agreement is that specific part of an Internet contract form,... (More)
The essay examines whether or not utilization of clickwrap and point-and-click agreements can give rise to legal obligations according to Swedish law. Both methods seek to incorporate and bind users to standardized terms through a “click” without giving any opportunity to negotiate the terms. They are contracts of adhesion, unilaterally put forward and dictated by one of the parties.

For a standard agreement to be binding in a particular case it’s generally required for there a) to actually be an agreement and b) that the terms themselves have been made part of it. The investigated methods are consequently analyzed with the basis of these two aspects.

A point-and-click¬ agreement is that specific part of an Internet contract form, found on a website, where the standard terms for the transaction are agreed to through a separate “click”.
The general consensus is that agreements concluded on the Internet are valid even though the theoretical basis is somewhat disputed. Specific problems also arise when applying some of the principles from traditional contract law on the new environment. Internet agreements can, of course, also be concluded using standard terms. Point-and-click makes for a strong approval of these general conditions and can consequently, if combined with other necessary measures, be used to incorporate more or less any terms.

If a user is required to give his or her consent to certain terms when installing computer software the potential result is a clickwrap agreement. If the conditions of the “license”, presented on the screen, are not accepted the software can generally not be installed.
In this essay the scope of the investigation has been limited to situations where the software itself is found on a physical entity, typically bought in a store. Despite this the general reasoning can, when the situation is similar, often be applied in the same way when the software is bought on the internet or through other channels.
When the clickwrap agreement is initiated the physical entity has typically already been bought and paid for. Because of this it is questionable whether or not the “approval” of the terms and conditions, when installing the software at a later stage, leads to a binding agreement. It is the situation that creates controversy, not the method itself. I personally suggest that each clickwrap agreement is analyzed with the principle of “freedom of contract” in mind. The buyers’ insight and possibility to return to status quo (if he doesn’t want to agree to the terms), among other circumstances, should then be weighed into this assessment. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ekblad, Tommie LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Clickwrap and Point-and-click: Concluding agreements and incorporating standard terms with electronic clicks
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Avtalsrätt, Civilrätt, IT-rätt, Licensavtal, Clickwrap, Click-wrap, Point-and-click, Standardavtal, Standardvillkor, Inkorporering
language
Swedish
id
2702014
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 11:16:39
date last changed
2012-10-15 11:16:39
@misc{2702014,
  abstract     = {The essay examines whether or not utilization of clickwrap and point-and-click agreements can give rise to legal obligations according to Swedish law. Both methods seek to incorporate and bind users to standardized terms through a “click” without giving any opportunity to negotiate the terms. They are contracts of adhesion, unilaterally put forward and dictated by one of the parties.

For a standard agreement to be binding in a particular case it’s generally required for there a) to actually be an agreement and b) that the terms themselves have been made part of it. The investigated methods are consequently analyzed with the basis of these two aspects.

A point-and-click¬ agreement is that specific part of an Internet contract form, found on a website, where the standard terms for the transaction are agreed to through a separate “click”.
 The general consensus is that agreements concluded on the Internet are valid even though the theoretical basis is somewhat disputed. Specific problems also arise when applying some of the principles from traditional contract law on the new environment. Internet agreements can, of course, also be concluded using standard terms. Point-and-click makes for a strong approval of these general conditions and can consequently, if combined with other necessary measures, be used to incorporate more or less any terms. 

If a user is required to give his or her consent to certain terms when installing computer software the potential result is a clickwrap agreement. If the conditions of the “license”, presented on the screen, are not accepted the software can generally not be installed.
 In this essay the scope of the investigation has been limited to situations where the software itself is found on a physical entity, typically bought in a store. Despite this the general reasoning can, when the situation is similar, often be applied in the same way when the software is bought on the internet or through other channels.
 When the clickwrap agreement is initiated the physical entity has typically already been bought and paid for. Because of this it is questionable whether or not the “approval” of the terms and conditions, when installing the software at a later stage, leads to a binding agreement. It is the situation that creates controversy, not the method itself. I personally suggest that each clickwrap agreement is analyzed with the principle of “freedom of contract” in mind. The buyers’ insight and possibility to return to status quo (if he doesn’t want to agree to the terms), among other circumstances, should then be weighed into this assessment.},
  author       = {Ekblad, Tommie},
  keyword      = {Avtalsrätt,Civilrätt,IT-rätt,Licensavtal,Clickwrap,Click-wrap,Point-and-click,Standardavtal,Standardvillkor,Inkorporering},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Clickwrap och Point-and-click: Att ingå avtal och införliva standardvillkor genom elektroniska klick},
  year         = {2012},
}