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Barnets roll i vårdnads-, boende - och umgängesutredningar - Huvudroll eller biroll?

Ripa, Mia LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Förevarande uppsats behandlar de utredningar om vårdnad-, boende- och/eller umgänge vilka kan företas i tvister om detsamma. Uppsatsen besvarar frågorna om när och hur reglerna om sådana utredningar tillämpas. Vidare behandlas de brister som finns i utredningar av sådant slag, samt delar av den kritik utredningarna utsatts för. Vid tvister om vårdnad-, boende- och/eller umgänge är vårdnadsutredningen en av de tyngst vägande delarna i processmaterialet. Härav är det av största vikt att utredningen utförs ändamålsenligt och med det aktuella barnet i fokus. Vårdnadsutredningen är också i praktiken barnets enda reella möjlighet att få uttrycka sin vilja, sina åsikter och tankar då möjligheten att höra barnet i rätten, av hänsyn till barnet,... (More)
Förevarande uppsats behandlar de utredningar om vårdnad-, boende- och/eller umgänge vilka kan företas i tvister om detsamma. Uppsatsen besvarar frågorna om när och hur reglerna om sådana utredningar tillämpas. Vidare behandlas de brister som finns i utredningar av sådant slag, samt delar av den kritik utredningarna utsatts för. Vid tvister om vårdnad-, boende- och/eller umgänge är vårdnadsutredningen en av de tyngst vägande delarna i processmaterialet. Härav är det av största vikt att utredningen utförs ändamålsenligt och med det aktuella barnet i fokus. Vårdnadsutredningen är också i praktiken barnets enda reella möjlighet att få uttrycka sin vilja, sina åsikter och tankar då möjligheten att höra barnet i rätten, av hänsyn till barnet, sällan tillämpas.

Har den ansvariga utredaren avgivit en rekommendation följs den av domstolen i ca 83 %. Samtidigt utsätts vårdnadsutredningarna för mycket och allvarlig kritik. Det är kritik som framkommit genom regeringsuppdrag, artiklar, motioner och utredningar. Likaså Socialstyrelsens utredningar visar på kritik, vidare är det inte ovanligt att enskilda riktar kritik mot utredningar av ifrågavarande slag. Den kritik enskilda riktar mot vårdnadsutredningarna kan inte, enligt en yrkesverksam domare, tillmätas någon större vikt. Domaren motiverar sitt uttalande med att sådan kritik sällan är objektiv.

Som alltid när det gäller frågor om barn står lagstiftaren inför stora och svåra avvägningar - barnet ska ha rätt att komma till tals, men ska samtidigt inte utsättas för press, påfrestningar eller tvingas välja mellan sina föräldrar. Barnet ska ha rätt att komma till tals – men ska också ha rätt att inte behöva uttala sig. Enligt svensk lag ska principen om barnets bästa vara avgörande för samtliga domstolsbeslut som rör barn. Principen gäller även för socialtjänstens beslut och åtgärder. Vidare ska också barnperspektivet genomsyra såväl domstolens beslut och åtgärder som socialtjänstens. Den för mig återkommande frågan under arbetets gång har varit om socialtjänstens vårdnadsutredningar lever upp till dessa krav?

Uppsatsen når slutsatsen att vårdnads-, boende-, och umgängesutredningarna länge utsatts för kritik. Utredningarna tycks dock tycks ha förbättrats efter 2006 års vårdnadsreform. Att något har blivit bättre är dock ej detsamma som att det fungerar på ett tillfredställande sätt. Vårdnadsutredningarna är enligt min mening, än idag, i behov av förbättring och samordning. Hur en vårdnadsutredning utförs ska ej vara avhängigt av vilken familjerätt och vilken socialsekreterare som verkställer utredningen. Det är svårt att införa tvingande regler, helt utan möjlighet till undantag, för hur en vårdnadsutredning ska genomföras i och med att varje fall och barn unikt. Däremot tror jag att vårdnadsutredningarna skulle kunna förbättras om minimikrav uppställdes, vilka samtliga utredningar måste leva upp till. (Less)
Abstract
The present essay aims to illuminate the custody reports possible to execute during a custody dispute, when and how the legal rules about custody reports applies, and how the custody report is executed. When a court has to decide if the custody of a child henceforth shall be joint or sole, or where the child henceforth shall live, and in which extent the child shall have right to visitation with the parent the child does not live with, the custody report study is a very weighty part for the court to take into consideration. Therefore it is essential that the custody report is effectively executed and that the main focus is put on the child.

The only actual chance the child has to express itself is during the custody report. Hence the... (More)
The present essay aims to illuminate the custody reports possible to execute during a custody dispute, when and how the legal rules about custody reports applies, and how the custody report is executed. When a court has to decide if the custody of a child henceforth shall be joint or sole, or where the child henceforth shall live, and in which extent the child shall have right to visitation with the parent the child does not live with, the custody report study is a very weighty part for the court to take into consideration. Therefore it is essential that the custody report is effectively executed and that the main focus is put on the child.

The only actual chance the child has to express itself is during the custody report. Hence the possibility to hear the child in a Swedish court is very limited, although the law comprises a possibility to do so. The section of law that states a possibility to hear the child in court is seldom used in practice. Hence it is usually not compatible with the best interest of the child.

The social services are the principal of the execution of a custody report. The social worker who in fact executes the study almost always gives a recommendation of how the dispute shall be settled. If a recommendation is given, the courts judgment is equivalent with the recommendation in 83 % of the cases, even though the custody studies have been much criticized.

This essay has been oriented to the criticism about the childs role in the custody study, aiming to investigate the most common questions associated, e.g. whether the child is visualized in an adequate way, whether the child gets enough room in the custody study, and whether the child’s right to express itself is obeyed.

As always when the legislator has to legislate in questions involving children, difficult balancing acts has to be performed. The legislation needs to be flexible since every child is unique, and although the child has a right to express itself, it also has a right to remain silent. This essay, however, has reached the conclusion that the flexibility seems to create problems because different social services interpret the law differently and therefore executes the custody study in very different ways, thus diminishing the safety in the application of the law. Some social services do not even talk to the child without a parent present, which, from my point of view, diminishes the purpose of the custody study and the right for the child to express itself.

The essay has reached the conclusion that the custody studies has improved after the custody reform 2006 but there is still a lot of criticism against them, and, apparently, there is still room for improvement. I fully understand the legislators dilemma about the flexibility needed in this kind of legislation, although I think it would be better and safer if the legislation contents minimum conditions that always have to be obeyed during a custody study. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ripa, Mia LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The child's role in custody reports . main character or not?
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
2760313
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 12:47:09
date last changed
2012-10-15 12:47:09
@misc{2760313,
  abstract     = {The present essay aims to illuminate the custody reports possible to execute during a custody dispute, when and how the legal rules about custody reports applies, and how the custody report is executed. When a court has to decide if the custody of a child henceforth shall be joint or sole, or where the child henceforth shall live, and in which extent the child shall have right to visitation with the parent the child does not live with, the custody report study is a very weighty part for the court to take into consideration. Therefore it is essential that the custody report is effectively executed and that the main focus is put on the child. 

The only actual chance the child has to express itself is during the custody report. Hence the possibility to hear the child in a Swedish court is very limited, although the law comprises a possibility to do so. The section of law that states a possibility to hear the child in court is seldom used in practice. Hence it is usually not compatible with the best interest of the child. 

The social services are the principal of the execution of a custody report. The social worker who in fact executes the study almost always gives a recommendation of how the dispute shall be settled. If a recommendation is given, the courts judgment is equivalent with the recommendation in 83 % of the cases, even though the custody studies have been much criticized. 

This essay has been oriented to the criticism about the childs role in the custody study, aiming to investigate the most common questions associated, e.g. whether the child is visualized in an adequate way, whether the child gets enough room in the custody study, and whether the child’s right to express itself is obeyed. 

As always when the legislator has to legislate in questions involving children, difficult balancing acts has to be performed. The legislation needs to be flexible since every child is unique, and although the child has a right to express itself, it also has a right to remain silent. This essay, however, has reached the conclusion that the flexibility seems to create problems because different social services interpret the law differently and therefore executes the custody study in very different ways, thus diminishing the safety in the application of the law. Some social services do not even talk to the child without a parent present, which, from my point of view, diminishes the purpose of the custody study and the right for the child to express itself. 

The essay has reached the conclusion that the custody studies has improved after the custody reform 2006 but there is still a lot of criticism against them, and, apparently, there is still room for improvement. I fully understand the legislators dilemma about the flexibility needed in this kind of legislation, although I think it would be better and safer if the legislation contents minimum conditions that always have to be obeyed during a custody study.},
  author       = {Ripa, Mia},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Barnets roll i vårdnads-, boende - och umgängesutredningar - Huvudroll eller biroll?},
  year         = {2012},
}