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En komparativ jämförelse mellan svensk och engelsk rätt - föräldrasamverkans utformning

Åberg, Michelle LU (2012) JURK01 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning

I Sverige råder ett strikt krav på konsensus när det gäller beslutanderätten vid gemensam vårdnad av barn. Detta innebär att vårdnadshavarna tvingas komma överens om princip alla frågor med undantag för den dagliga omsorgen vad gäller barnet. När vårdnadshavarna inte längre bor tillsammans efter exempel- vis en äktenskapsskillnad, finns samma samstämmighet dem emellan kanske inte längre kvar och oenighet i beslutsfattandet kan förekomma. Oenigheten kan ofta leda till ett fokus på vårdnadshavarnas intressen snarare än barnets bästa, vilket ofta resulterar i en status quo situation. Barnet blir lidande av att viktiga beslut inte kan fattas. Denna problematik har uppmärksammats av lag- stiftaren och har resulterat i bland... (More)
Sammanfattning

I Sverige råder ett strikt krav på konsensus när det gäller beslutanderätten vid gemensam vårdnad av barn. Detta innebär att vårdnadshavarna tvingas komma överens om princip alla frågor med undantag för den dagliga omsorgen vad gäller barnet. När vårdnadshavarna inte längre bor tillsammans efter exempel- vis en äktenskapsskillnad, finns samma samstämmighet dem emellan kanske inte längre kvar och oenighet i beslutsfattandet kan förekomma. Oenigheten kan ofta leda till ett fokus på vårdnadshavarnas intressen snarare än barnets bästa, vilket ofta resulterar i en status quo situation. Barnet blir lidande av att viktiga beslut inte kan fattas. Denna problematik har uppmärksammats av lag- stiftaren och har resulterat i bland annat SOU 2007:52 med ett antal förslag om hur tvister vårdnadshavarna emellan vad gäller beslutanderätten skulle kunna lösas. Utredningen blev dock resultatlös men problematiken fortsatte att upp- märksammas i den promemoria som arbetades fram under 2011. Fokus låg på förändringar främst i beslut om hälso- och sjukvård, vilket resulterade i den lagändringen som trädde i kraft i maj i år 2012. Socialnämnden har numera en rätt att besluta att en åtgärd får vidtas trots att endast en av vårdnadshavarna samtycker, om det krävs med hänsyn till barnets bästa. Dock är denna rätten endast begränsad till beslut om exempelvis psykologisk behandling etc. Det som fortfarande kan ifrågasättas är hur resterande dispyter om andra typer av beslut såsom exempelvis utbildning, sjukvård etc. skall lösas. Problematiken kvarstår fortfarande och det svenska systemet står utan en lösning.

Genom att göra en komparation med England, kan vi beskåda fördelar och nackdelar med det svenska systemet. De två systemen skiljer sig åt och kommer från olika rättskulturer, vilket måste beaktas.
För att introducera det engelska systemet, så har de en rättsordning som baseras på en självbestämmanderätt för de personer som har s.k. parental respon- sibility. De råder med andra ord som huvudregel inget krav på konsensus inom den engelska rätten, med ett undantag för beslut som rör mycket viktiga frågor. I frågan om vem som kan förvärva vårdnadsansvar, kan vi återigen se skillna- der. Enligt det svenska systemet är det endast vårdnadshavarna som ges en be- slutanderätt, jämfört med England där parental responsibility kan förvärvas av andra personer. En styvförälder eller mor- och farföräldrar kan exempelvis förvärva ansvaret enligt en s.k. residence order.

Med fler personer som har en möjlighet att fatta beslut som i engelsk rätt, finns en risk att besluten överlappar varandra. Detta är ett tydligt problem. Den engelska rätten har dock valt att lösa detta genom en tvistlösningsmodell där domstolen ges en rätt att utfärda olika orders. Rör det exempelvis en viss speci- fik fråga, kan detta regleras genom specific issue orders.

Trots att en lagändring trätt i kraft inom svensk rätt, finns fortfarande problematiken kvar vad gäller vissa beslut. Den engelska rätten har ett tvistlös- ningssystem av mer generell karaktär, vilket gör den mottaglig för de flesta ty- per av beslut som kan hamna i konflikt. Det svenska däremot speglas av ett ganska snävt system där ifrågasättande av effektivitet och oklarhet råder. En fortsatt diskussion kring problematiken som rör beslutanderätten vårdnadsha- vare emellan krävs, där engelsk rätt i slutändan ändå skulle kunna ses som en god förebild. (Less)
Abstract
Summary

In Swedish law, joint legal custody generally entails a strict requirement of con- sensus in decisions concerning the child. The basic precondition is that both parents must agree on almost all matters. An exeption from this condition can however be made in matters concerning the daily care. The housing parent has in these matters autonomy to decide. After for example a divorce, it can often occur disagreements and diffe- rences between the parents. Maybe they don’t live toghether any more or, have difficulties to understand the changed circumstances in each others lives. This might lead to a status quo situation where the parents inability to cooperate could inflict on the interests and rights of the child. This is one of the... (More)
Summary

In Swedish law, joint legal custody generally entails a strict requirement of con- sensus in decisions concerning the child. The basic precondition is that both parents must agree on almost all matters. An exeption from this condition can however be made in matters concerning the daily care. The housing parent has in these matters autonomy to decide. After for example a divorce, it can often occur disagreements and diffe- rences between the parents. Maybe they don’t live toghether any more or, have difficulties to understand the changed circumstances in each others lives. This might lead to a status quo situation where the parents inability to cooperate could inflict on the interests and rights of the child. This is one of the main negative effects of the present legislation in the swedish lawsystem. A commis- sion was assigned by the Swedish Government to interrogate and analyze the disadvanteges that this occurrence can arise for the child. As a result, the co- mission developed the SOU 2007:52. Unfortunality, this inquiry never entered into force because of lack of suitable resolutions for the problems in question. Regardless of this, the Swedish Government observed the remaining problem again in a momorandum in 2011. The main focus was still on disagreements between parents but, more specialized on decisions concerning the child’s he- alth care. This momorandum resulted in a new section in the swedish code of law, which entered in to force in May this year. The new section comprises an abilitlity for the socialnämnden to make decisions in certain matters despite, that only one of the parents has given their consent. Still, this is restricted to decisions concering for example psychological treatment. What remains, is how other types of disputes concerning for example education is to be solved. In this area there still is a lack of a method of dispute resolution.

By doing a comparison with England, an analysis of advantages and disad- vantages of swedish law can be made. The two systems differs and comes from different types of legal culture, which needs to be taken into considera- tion while doing the comparison.

To introduce the english system, it contains a right for every person with parental responsibility to make autonomy decisions. This means, that there is no requirement of consensus in decisions concering the child. Still, as in swedish law there is an exception when it concerns very important decisions. Regarding who can acquire parental responsibility or guardianship, differences can be seen once again. In swedish law it is only the guardians that can make the decisions about the child. In english law on the other hand, a lot more people can acqui- re parental responsibility. For example step-parents, grandparents etc. can acquire it through an residence order.

With a system with multiple amount of people making decisions, there is always a risk of decisions overlapping each other. It can with certainty be re- garded as a big problem, but the english system has solved it with a well deve- loped method of dispute resolution. The method is based on a jurisdiction for the court to issue different types of orders. If a dispute occurs about for ex- ample a specific question, the court can issue a specific issue order.

Even though a new section has entered into force in the swedish system, problems regarding some decisions still remains. The english system has a method of dispute resolution which is wide and susceptible for many types of dispuets. The swedish one on the other hand, reflects a narrow system withissues concerning effectivity and ambiguities. A further discussion needs to be done regarding decisionmaking between parents, where the english system in the end seems like a good role model. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Åberg, Michelle LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURK01 20121
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
gemensam vårdnad, beslutanderätt, familjerätt, konsensus, parental responsibility
language
Swedish
id
2834884
date added to LUP
2013-05-22 15:42:47
date last changed
2013-05-22 15:42:47
@misc{2834884,
  abstract     = {Summary

In Swedish law, joint legal custody generally entails a strict requirement of con- sensus in decisions concerning the child. The basic precondition is that both parents must agree on almost all matters. An exeption from this condition can however be made in matters concerning the daily care. The housing parent has in these matters autonomy to decide. After for example a divorce, it can often occur disagreements and diffe- rences between the parents. Maybe they don’t live toghether any more or, have difficulties to understand the changed circumstances in each others lives. This might lead to a status quo situation where the parents inability to cooperate could inflict on the interests and rights of the child. This is one of the main negative effects of the present legislation in the swedish lawsystem. A commis- sion was assigned by the Swedish Government to interrogate and analyze the disadvanteges that this occurrence can arise for the child. As a result, the co- mission developed the SOU 2007:52. Unfortunality, this inquiry never entered into force because of lack of suitable resolutions for the problems in question. Regardless of this, the Swedish Government observed the remaining problem again in a momorandum in 2011. The main focus was still on disagreements between parents but, more specialized on decisions concerning the child’s he- alth care. This momorandum resulted in a new section in the swedish code of law, which entered in to force in May this year. The new section comprises an abilitlity for the socialnämnden to make decisions in certain matters despite, that only one of the parents has given their consent. Still, this is restricted to decisions concering for example psychological treatment. What remains, is how other types of disputes concerning for example education is to be solved. In this area there still is a lack of a method of dispute resolution.

By doing a comparison with England, an analysis of advantages and disad- vantages of swedish law can be made. The two systems differs and comes from different types of legal culture, which needs to be taken into considera- tion while doing the comparison.

To introduce the english system, it contains a right for every person with parental responsibility to make autonomy decisions. This means, that there is no requirement of consensus in decisions concering the child. Still, as in swedish law there is an exception when it concerns very important decisions. Regarding who can acquire parental responsibility or guardianship, differences can be seen once again. In swedish law it is only the guardians that can make the decisions about the child. In english law on the other hand, a lot more people can acqui- re parental responsibility. For example step-parents, grandparents etc. can acquire it through an residence order.

With a system with multiple amount of people making decisions, there is always a risk of decisions overlapping each other. It can with certainty be re- garded as a big problem, but the english system has solved it with a well deve- loped method of dispute resolution. The method is based on a jurisdiction for the court to issue different types of orders. If a dispute occurs about for ex- ample a specific question, the court can issue a specific issue order.

Even though a new section has entered into force in the swedish system, problems regarding some decisions still remains. The english system has a method of dispute resolution which is wide and susceptible for many types of dispuets. The swedish one on the other hand, reflects a narrow system withissues concerning effectivity and ambiguities. A further discussion needs to be done regarding decisionmaking between parents, where the english system in the end seems like a good role model.},
  author       = {Åberg, Michelle},
  keyword      = {gemensam vårdnad,beslutanderätt,familjerätt,konsensus,parental responsibility},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {En komparativ jämförelse mellan svensk och engelsk rätt - föräldrasamverkans utformning},
  year         = {2012},
}