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The responsibility of the United Nation in joint operations- Human rights, international humanitarian law and the ILC Draft 2011

Nilsson, Åsa LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I uppsatsen behandlar författaren de rekvisit som skall vara uppfyllda för att FN skall kunna hållas internationellt ansvarig för nationella truppers agerande i internationella militära insatser auktoriserade av säkerhetsrådet. Under 2011 antog the International Law Commission 67 provisoriska artiklar gällande internationella organisationers internationella ansvar, och ett av syftena med uppsatsen är att belysa den pågående diskussionen gällande hur de antagna artiklarna skall tolkas, med fokus på begreppen breach of an international obligation och attributable to that organization. Vidare så är författarens intention att jämföra de olika argumenten med generella principer i internationell rätt, för att avgöra huruvida de korresponderar... (More)
I uppsatsen behandlar författaren de rekvisit som skall vara uppfyllda för att FN skall kunna hållas internationellt ansvarig för nationella truppers agerande i internationella militära insatser auktoriserade av säkerhetsrådet. Under 2011 antog the International Law Commission 67 provisoriska artiklar gällande internationella organisationers internationella ansvar, och ett av syftena med uppsatsen är att belysa den pågående diskussionen gällande hur de antagna artiklarna skall tolkas, med fokus på begreppen breach of an international obligation och attributable to that organization. Vidare så är författarens intention att jämföra de olika argumenten med generella principer i internationell rätt, för att avgöra huruvida de korresponderar med varandra samt huruvida argumenten kan anses korrekta.

Diskussionen fick ny fart efter Europadomstolen för Mänskliga Rättigheters kontroversiella dom i Behrami-Saramatifallet, där domstolen hävdade att FN skall hållas ansvarig för nationella truppers agerande i internationella militära insatser om säkerhetsrådet har auktoriserat den militära insatsen. Domen gick tvärtemot den väletablerade statsansvarsprincip applicerad av the International Court of Justice i Nicaraguafallet, vilken innebär att det krävs kontroll över varje enskild handling för att en stat ska kunna hållas ansvarig för ett icke-statsorgans agerande.

Gällande begreppet breach of an international obligation, är författarens syfte att redogöra för de internationella skyldigheter som tillfaller FN grundat på traktaträtt, internationell sedvanerätt samt jus cogens. Då FN inte har ratificerat några existerande multilaterala traktater gällande mänskliga rättigheter eller internationell humanitär rätt, så är organisationen inte heller traktaträttsligt bunden av dessa traktater. Vidare noterar författaren att det är oklart och omdiskuterat huruvida internationell sedvanerätt, inklusive jus cogens, samt FN stadgan är internationellt bindande i förhållande till FN, och i så fall i vilken utsträckning.

Gällande termen attributable to that organization, så är den avgörande frågan vem eller vilka som besatt effektiv kontroll över de nationella styrkornas handlande vid den aktuella tidpunkten, och därmed skall anses ansvariga. Tre olika tolkningsmöjligheter av begreppet effektiv kontroll presenteras, och författaren belyser såväl fördelar som nackdelar med de olika alternativen innan slutsatsen dras att försiktighet bör iakttas innan den traditionella tolkningen som användes i Nicaraguafallet överges. (Less)
Abstract
In the thesis, the author deals with the prerequisites required for the United Nations to be held responsible for the conduct of contributed national forces in an international military operation authorized by the Security Council. In 2011, the International Law Commission adopted 67 draft articles on the responsibility of international organizations, and one of the intentions of the author is to highlight the ongoing discussion concerning the interpretation of the draft articles, with focus upon the two terms breach of an international obligation and attributable to that organization. Further, the author seeks to compare the different arguments to general principles of international law, and conclude upon whether they correspond or not,... (More)
In the thesis, the author deals with the prerequisites required for the United Nations to be held responsible for the conduct of contributed national forces in an international military operation authorized by the Security Council. In 2011, the International Law Commission adopted 67 draft articles on the responsibility of international organizations, and one of the intentions of the author is to highlight the ongoing discussion concerning the interpretation of the draft articles, with focus upon the two terms breach of an international obligation and attributable to that organization. Further, the author seeks to compare the different arguments to general principles of international law, and conclude upon whether they correspond or not, and whether they can be considered correct.

The discussion increased significantly after the controversial judgement by the European Court of Human Rights in the Behrami-Saramati Case, where the Court argued that the United Nations are to be considered internationally responsible for the conduct of the contributed forces if the Security Council authorizes the military operation. The judgment is in contrast to the well-established principle of State responsibility applied by the International Court of Justice in the Nicaragua Case, where the Court required control over each individual act in order for a State to be considered internationally responsible for the conduct of a non-organ of the State.

In relation to the term breach of an international obligation, the author seeks to clarify the international obligations applicable upon the United Nations, and considers treaty law as well as customary international law, the Charter of the United Nations and the norms with the character of jus cogens. Due to the fact that the United Nations has not ratified any multilateral treaty concerning human rights or international humanitarian law, the author concludes that those treaties are not applicable upon the organization. The author further notes that there is an ongoing discussion whether customary international law, including the norms of jus cogens, and the UN Charter is applicable upon the United Nations or not, and if so, to what extent.

In relation to the term attributable to that organization, the author identifies the crucial question to be whether the UN or the contributing State possessed effective control over the contributed forces at the time of the conduct, and therefore should be considered responsible. The author presents three different interpretations of the term effective control, and highlights the advantages and disadvantages with each one of them before concluding that caution should be considered before the traditional interpretation applied in the Nicaragua Case is abandoned. (Less)
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author
Nilsson, Åsa LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
International law, public international law, ILC, human rights, responsibility
language
English
id
2843497
date added to LUP
2012-11-01 09:21:32
date last changed
2012-11-01 09:21:32
@misc{2843497,
  abstract     = {In the thesis, the author deals with the prerequisites required for the United Nations to be held responsible for the conduct of contributed national forces in an international military operation authorized by the Security Council. In 2011, the International Law Commission adopted 67 draft articles on the responsibility of international organizations, and one of the intentions of the author is to highlight the ongoing discussion concerning the interpretation of the draft articles, with focus upon the two terms breach of an international obligation and attributable to that organization. Further, the author seeks to compare the different arguments to general principles of international law, and conclude upon whether they correspond or not, and whether they can be considered correct. 

The discussion increased significantly after the controversial judgement by the European Court of Human Rights in the Behrami-Saramati Case, where the Court argued that the United Nations are to be considered internationally responsible for the conduct of the contributed forces if the Security Council authorizes the military operation. The judgment is in contrast to the well-established principle of State responsibility applied by the International Court of Justice in the Nicaragua Case, where the Court required control over each individual act in order for a State to be considered internationally responsible for the conduct of a non-organ of the State.

In relation to the term breach of an international obligation, the author seeks to clarify the international obligations applicable upon the United Nations, and considers treaty law as well as customary international law, the Charter of the United Nations and the norms with the character of jus cogens. Due to the fact that the United Nations has not ratified any multilateral treaty concerning human rights or international humanitarian law, the author concludes that those treaties are not applicable upon the organization. The author further notes that there is an ongoing discussion whether customary international law, including the norms of jus cogens, and the UN Charter is applicable upon the United Nations or not, and if so, to what extent.

In relation to the term attributable to that organization, the author identifies the crucial question to be whether the UN or the contributing State possessed effective control over the contributed forces at the time of the conduct, and therefore should be considered responsible. The author presents three different interpretations of the term effective control, and highlights the advantages and disadvantages with each one of them before concluding that caution should be considered before the traditional interpretation applied in the Nicaragua Case is abandoned.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Åsa},
  keyword      = {International law,public international law,ILC,human rights,responsibility},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {The responsibility of the United Nation in joint operations- Human rights, international humanitarian law and the ILC Draft 2011},
  year         = {2012},
}