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Sociala hänsyn vid offentlig upphandling

Lundberg, Samuel LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
När ett offentligt organ ägnar sig åt offentlig upphandling torde huvudsyftet vara att tillfredsställa ett behov av varor, tjänster eller byggentreprenader. En utgångspunkt för offentlig upphandling är att det är den upphandlande enheten som identifierar sitt behov och således avgör vad som ska upp¬handlas. Utöver syftet att tillfredsställa sitt primära upphandlingsbehov kan en upphandlande enhet emellertid ha sekundära målsättningar med sin upp¬handling. En kommun vill kanske genom sin upphandling påverka jäm¬ställdhetssituationen i kommunen. Det kan också tänkas att en upphand¬lande enhet vill att de varor som den upphandlar är producerade under rätt¬visa förhållande; innebärande att de arbetare som producerar varorna får en skälig lön... (More)
När ett offentligt organ ägnar sig åt offentlig upphandling torde huvudsyftet vara att tillfredsställa ett behov av varor, tjänster eller byggentreprenader. En utgångspunkt för offentlig upphandling är att det är den upphandlande enheten som identifierar sitt behov och således avgör vad som ska upp¬handlas. Utöver syftet att tillfredsställa sitt primära upphandlingsbehov kan en upphandlande enhet emellertid ha sekundära målsättningar med sin upp¬handling. En kommun vill kanske genom sin upphandling påverka jäm¬ställdhetssituationen i kommunen. Det kan också tänkas att en upphand¬lande enhet vill att de varor som den upphandlar är producerade under rätt¬visa förhållande; innebärande att de arbetare som producerar varorna får en skälig lön för sitt arbete och i övrigt arbetar under acceptabla anställnings¬villkor.
I teorin kan en upphandlande enhet genom att ställa olika typer av krav på de leverantörer som vill vara med och konkurrera om en upphandling både direkt och indirekt påverka exempelvis anställningsvillkoren för de anställda hos leverantören, leverantörens jämställdhetsarbete, arbetsmiljön för de an-ställda etcetera. Det handlar då om ett socialt hänsynstagande inom ra¬men för offentlig upphandling. Man kan också tycka att det är legitimt att Sveri-ges offentliga organ och myndigheter ställer upp krav på att deras leve¬rantörer betalar skäliga löner till sina anställda, har säkra arbetsplatser, be¬handlar kvinnor och män lika etcetera. Med hänsyn till de pengar som finns att tjäna på offentliga kontrakt för enskilda företag är det inte svårt att före¬ställa sig att dessa skulle vara villiga att foga sig efter dylika krav.
Myndigheternas möjligheter att själva avgöra vilka leverantörer de skall ingå avtal med samt vilka krav och villkor de kan ställa på dito är emellertid hårt kringskurna av upphandlingslagstiftning. Upphandlingslagstiftningen bygger på EU-direktiv vars syfte är att bidra till förverkligandet av den inre marknaden genom att motverka hinder för den fria rörligheten för varor och tjänster samt värna de företag som är etablerade i en medlemsstat och som vill erbjuda varor, tjänster och/eller byggentreprenader åt upphandlande myndigheter i andra medlemsstater. Utöver upphandlingsdirektiven, styrs upphandlingsrätten av ett antal EU-rättsliga principer som finns kodifierade i både primärrätten och sekundärrätten samt bekräftade och i vissa fall för¬tydligade i EU-domstolens rättspraxis. Till detta kommer den svenska upp¬handlingslagstiftningen som kompletteras av svensk förvaltningsrättspraxis.
Denna framställning utreder vilket rättsligt utrymme det finns för svenska upphandlande enheter att genom olika typer av krav, villkor och uteslut¬ningsgrunder använda sin upphandling som ett socialpolitiskt styrmedel.
Min undersökning visar på att det mest gångbara sättet för en upphand¬lande enhet att ta sociala hänsyn i sin upphandling är genom att ställa upp särskilda villkor för fullgörande av ett upphandlingskontrakt. Det finns även utrymme för att ta sociala hänsyn genom att utesluta leverantörer som gjort sig skyldiga till allvarliga fel i yrkesutövningen avseende bl.a. sociala frå¬gor. Det kan också argumenteras för att det finns ett visst utrymme att ta sociala hänsyn genom de så kallade utvärderingskriterierna. (Less)
Abstract
When a public body engages in public procurement the main purpose for it to do so is arguably to satisfy a need for goods, services or works. A starting point for public procurement is that it is the procuring entity which identifies its own needs and thus determines what is to be procured. In addition to the purpose of satisfying its primary procurement needs, a contracting entity, however, may have secondary objectives with its procurement. A munici¬pality may for example want to use its procurement to influence the gender situation in the municipality. It is also possible that a contracting authority wants to make sure that the goods, which are the objective of a specific pro¬curement, are produced under fair conditions, meaning that... (More)
When a public body engages in public procurement the main purpose for it to do so is arguably to satisfy a need for goods, services or works. A starting point for public procurement is that it is the procuring entity which identifies its own needs and thus determines what is to be procured. In addition to the purpose of satisfying its primary procurement needs, a contracting entity, however, may have secondary objectives with its procurement. A munici¬pality may for example want to use its procurement to influence the gender situation in the municipality. It is also possible that a contracting authority wants to make sure that the goods, which are the objective of a specific pro¬curement, are produced under fair conditions, meaning that the workers who produce the goods receive a living wage for their work and also in general have fair and acceptable conditions of employment.
In theory an entity can, by placing different demands on the suppliers who want to participate and compete for an award, both directly and indirectly affect the conditions of employment for the employees of the supplier; the supplier's equality work, the work environment for employees and so on. I am talking about social considerations in the context of public procurement. One can also argue that it is legitimate that Swedish public authorities and bodies set up requirements on their suppliers to pay fair wages to their em¬ployees have safe workplaces, treat men and women equally and so on. Given the money available in public contracts for individual companies to earn it is not difficult to imagine that they would be willing to comply with such requirements.
However, the possibility for contracting entities to decide for themselves which providers are to enter into a contract with them and the requirements and conditions they may impose on the same, is severely circumscribed by procurement law. Swedish procurement legislation is based on EU direc¬tives aiming to contribute to the realization of the internal market by pre¬venting barriers to free movement of goods and services and to protect the companies which are established in one Member State and who wish to of-fer goods, services and / or works to the contracting authorities of other Member States. In addition to the procurement directives, procurement law is gov¬erned by a number of EU law principles. Principles codified in both primary and secondary law, and confirmed and in some cases clarified in ECJ case-law. In addition, there is the Swedish procurement law which is supplemented by the Swedish administrative case-law.
This presentation examines what legal scope there is for Swedish entities to use its procurement as a social policy tool by imposing various types of requirements, conditions and exclusion criteria in their public procurement.
My investigation shows that the most viable way for an entity to take so¬cial considerations into their procurement is by setting up special conditions for the performance of a contract. There is also scope for taking social con¬siderations by excluding providers who are guilty of serious professional misconduct relating to social issues. It can also be argued that there is some scope for integrating social considerations through the so-called award crite¬ria. (Less)
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@misc{2855903,
  abstract     = {When a public body engages in public procurement the main purpose for it to do so is arguably to satisfy a need for goods, services or works. A starting point for public procurement is that it is the procuring entity which identifies its own needs and thus determines what is to be procured. In addition to the purpose of satisfying its primary procurement needs, a contracting entity, however, may have secondary objectives with its procurement. A munici¬pality may for example want to use its procurement to influence the gender situation in the municipality. It is also possible that a contracting authority wants to make sure that the goods, which are the objective of a specific pro¬curement, are produced under fair conditions, meaning that the workers who produce the goods receive a living wage for their work and also in general have fair and acceptable conditions of employment.
 In theory an entity can, by placing different demands on the suppliers who want to participate and compete for an award, both directly and indirectly affect the conditions of employment for the employees of the supplier; the supplier's equality work, the work environment for employees and so on. I am talking about social considerations in the context of public procurement. One can also argue that it is legitimate that Swedish public authorities and bodies set up requirements on their suppliers to pay fair wages to their em¬ployees have safe workplaces, treat men and women equally and so on. Given the money available in public contracts for individual companies to earn it is not difficult to imagine that they would be willing to comply with such requirements.
 However, the possibility for contracting entities to decide for themselves which providers are to enter into a contract with them and the requirements and conditions they may impose on the same, is severely circumscribed by procurement law. Swedish procurement legislation is based on EU direc¬tives aiming to contribute to the realization of the internal market by pre¬venting barriers to free movement of goods and services and to protect the companies which are established in one Member State and who wish to of-fer goods, services and / or works to the contracting authorities of other Member States. In addition to the procurement directives, procurement law is gov¬erned by a number of EU law principles. Principles codified in both primary and secondary law, and confirmed and in some cases clarified in ECJ case-law. In addition, there is the Swedish procurement law which is supplemented by the Swedish administrative case-law.
 This presentation examines what legal scope there is for Swedish entities to use its procurement as a social policy tool by imposing various types of requirements, conditions and exclusion criteria in their public procurement. 
 My investigation shows that the most viable way for an entity to take so¬cial considerations into their procurement is by setting up special conditions for the performance of a contract. There is also scope for taking social con¬siderations by excluding providers who are guilty of serious professional misconduct relating to social issues. It can also be argued that there is some scope for integrating social considerations through the so-called award crite¬ria.},
  author       = {Lundberg, Samuel},
  keyword      = {allmän rättslära (en. jurisprudence),arbetsrätt (en. labour law),associationsrätt,avtalsrätt,bankrätt (en. banking law),boenderätt,civilrätt (en. private law),EU-rätt (en. EU law),familjerätt,fastighetsrätt,finansrätt (en. fiscal law),folkrätt (en. public international law),företagsekonomi,förmögenhetsrätt,försäkringsrätt,förvaltningsrätt (en. administrative law),immaterialrätt,internationell privaträtt (en. private international law),IT-rätt,komparativ rätt (en. comparative law),konkurrensrätt (en. civil and criminal procedure),rättsekonomi (en law and economics),rättshistoria (en. legal history),rättssociologi,rättsvetenskap (en. law),sakrätt,sjörätt,skadeståndsrätt,skatterätt,socialrätt (en. social and welfare law),statsrätt,straffrätt (en. criminal law),transporträtt,utrikeshandelsrätt.},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Sociala hänsyn vid offentlig upphandling},
  year         = {2012},
}