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Ojämställda konstruktioner? En diskursanalys av diskrimineringslagens konstruktioner av kön, genus och sexualitet

Carlsson, Sanne LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract
The topic of this essay is the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of gender, sexual orientation and transgender identity or expression, as determined by the 2008 Discrimination Act (2008:567), preliminary work and practice. The Discrimination Act collects prohibitions of discrimination that previously were scattered across several acts. The purpose was to simplify the regulation and strengthen the protection against discrimination. To the five existing grounds of discrimination, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion or other belief and disability, two new were added: age and transgender identity or expression.

The grounds of discrimination are the basis of the applicability of the Discrimination Act. The Act serves as... (More)
The topic of this essay is the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of gender, sexual orientation and transgender identity or expression, as determined by the 2008 Discrimination Act (2008:567), preliminary work and practice. The Discrimination Act collects prohibitions of discrimination that previously were scattered across several acts. The purpose was to simplify the regulation and strengthen the protection against discrimination. To the five existing grounds of discrimination, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion or other belief and disability, two new were added: age and transgender identity or expression.

The grounds of discrimination are the basis of the applicability of the Discrimination Act. The Act serves as a closed list and the scope of protection thus coincides with these groups. In this essay I investigate whom the act protects and whom it neglects. Who is considered to be worthy of protection in the sense of the Discrimination Act? Moreover, I study how the grounds of discrimination have been constructed. How are they defined and what demarcations do they suggest? The purpose is to make the norms and structures that the regulation rests upon and maintains visible. This is done through critical discourse analysis. Trough this method the researcher can read the implicit meanings of speech and silence.

The essay rests on a theoretical framework that consists of Michel Foucault’s analysis of power, Judith Butler’s and Yvonne Hirdman’s theories on gender and Foucault’s, Gayle Rubin’s and Jeffrey Weeks’ analyses of sexuality.

In this essay I study the 2008 Discrimination Act, its preliminary work and court cases. From these, one can read certain problematic discourses. The construction of the discrimination ground gender is based on a view of gender as simple and self-explanatory. Thus, the Discrimination Act uses a legal definition where gender only means to be a man or a woman. Against this background, the new discrimination ground transgender identity or expression appears to be something divergent. Its inclusive character clashes with the excluding legal definition of gender. Moreover, there is a distinct demarcation between the three protected sexual orientations homo-, bi- and heterosexuality, and other practices or identities which in the preliminary work are said to only be sexual behaviors that arise from the previous ones. The construction also excludes those that don’t define their sexual orientation, and those who live out their sexuality in other forms than monogamous relationships or the aspiration for such relationships. In conclusion, it may be questioned whether the Discrimination Act fulfills its purpose of counteracting discrimination and promoting equality. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Den här uppsatsen behandlar förbudet mot diskriminering på grund av kön, sexuell läggning och könsöverskridande identitet eller uttryck så som det stadgas i 2008-års diskrimineringslag (2008:567), förarbeten och rättspraxis. Diskrimineringslagen samlar diskrimineringsförbuden som tidigare varit utspridda i flertalet lagar. Syftet var att förenkla lagstiftningen och förstärka skyddet mot diskriminering. Till de befintliga fem diskrimineringsgrunderna kön, sexuell läggning, etnicitet, religion eller annan trosuppfattning och funktionshinder läggs två nya: ålder och könsöverskridande identitet eller uttryck.

Diskrimineringsgrunderna utgör basen för diskrimineringslagens tillämplighet. Lagens uppräkning utgör en sluten lista och skyddets... (More)
Den här uppsatsen behandlar förbudet mot diskriminering på grund av kön, sexuell läggning och könsöverskridande identitet eller uttryck så som det stadgas i 2008-års diskrimineringslag (2008:567), förarbeten och rättspraxis. Diskrimineringslagen samlar diskrimineringsförbuden som tidigare varit utspridda i flertalet lagar. Syftet var att förenkla lagstiftningen och förstärka skyddet mot diskriminering. Till de befintliga fem diskrimineringsgrunderna kön, sexuell läggning, etnicitet, religion eller annan trosuppfattning och funktionshinder läggs två nya: ålder och könsöverskridande identitet eller uttryck.

Diskrimineringsgrunderna utgör basen för diskrimineringslagens tillämplighet. Lagens uppräkning utgör en sluten lista och skyddets omfattning sammanfaller således med dessa grupper. I den här uppsatsen undersöker jag vem som skyddas och vem som faller utanför. Vem anses vara skyddsvärd i diskrimineringslagens mening? Vidare studeras hur diskrimineringsgrunderna har byggts upp. Hur definieras de och vilka avgränsningar innebär de? Syftet är att synliggöra vilka normer och strukturer som lagstiftningen bygger på och upprätthåller. Det sker med den kritiska diskursanalysen som metod. Genom denna kan forskaren utläsa den implicita betydelsen av tal och tystnader.

Arbetet vilar på en teorigrund som utgörs av Michel Foucaults maktanalys, Judith Butler och Yvonne Hirdmans teorier om kön samt Foucault, Gayle Rubin och Jeffrey Weeks analyser av sexualitet.

I detta arbete studeras 2008-års diskrimineringslag, dess förarbete samt rättsfall. Ur dessa kan utläsas vissa problematiska diskurser. Konstruktionen av diskrimineringsgrunden kön baseras på en syn på kön som enkelt och självklart. Således används en legaldefinition där kön enbart sägs vara att vara man eller kvinna. Mot denna bakgrund framstår den nya diskrimineringsgrunden könsöverskridande identitet eller uttryck som något avvikande. Dess inkluderande karaktär är ett avbrott mot könets exkluderande legaldefinition. Vidare sker en tydlig avgränsning mellan de tre skyddade sexuella läggningarna, homo-, bi- och heterosexualitet, och övriga praktiker eller identiteter som i propositionen påstås vara endast sexuella beteenden som har sin grund i de tidigare. Konstruktionen utesluter vidare de som inte har eller definierar sin sexuella läggning och de som lever ut sin sexualitet i andra former än monogama relationer eller strävan efter sådan. Sammanfattningsvis kan ifrågasättas om diskrimineringslagen lever upp till sitt syfte att motverka diskriminering och främja jämställdhet och likabehandling. (Less)
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author
Carlsson, Sanne LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Unequal constructions? A discourse analysis of the constructions of sex, gender and sexuality in the Discrimination Act
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
diskursanalys, arbetsrätt, kön, genus, sexualitet, diskriminering, makt
language
Swedish
id
3127231
date added to LUP
2012-11-01 11:45:13
date last changed
2012-11-01 11:45:13
@misc{3127231,
  abstract     = {The topic of this essay is the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of gender, sexual orientation and transgender identity or expression, as determined by the 2008 Discrimination Act (2008:567), preliminary work and practice. The Discrimination Act collects prohibitions of discrimination that previously were scattered across several acts. The purpose was to simplify the regulation and strengthen the protection against discrimination. To the five existing grounds of discrimination, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion or other belief and disability, two new were added: age and transgender identity or expression.

The grounds of discrimination are the basis of the applicability of the Discrimination Act. The Act serves as a closed list and the scope of protection thus coincides with these groups. In this essay I investigate whom the act protects and whom it neglects. Who is considered to be worthy of protection in the sense of the Discrimination Act? Moreover, I study how the grounds of discrimination have been constructed. How are they defined and what demarcations do they suggest? The purpose is to make the norms and structures that the regulation rests upon and maintains visible. This is done through critical discourse analysis. Trough this method the researcher can read the implicit meanings of speech and silence.

The essay rests on a theoretical framework that consists of Michel Foucault’s analysis of power, Judith Butler’s and Yvonne Hirdman’s theories on gender and Foucault’s, Gayle Rubin’s and Jeffrey Weeks’ analyses of sexuality.

In this essay I study the 2008 Discrimination Act, its preliminary work and court cases. From these, one can read certain problematic discourses. The construction of the discrimination ground gender is based on a view of gender as simple and self-explanatory. Thus, the Discrimination Act uses a legal definition where gender only means to be a man or a woman. Against this background, the new discrimination ground transgender identity or expression appears to be something divergent. Its inclusive character clashes with the excluding legal definition of gender. Moreover, there is a distinct demarcation between the three protected sexual orientations homo-, bi- and heterosexuality, and other practices or identities which in the preliminary work are said to only be sexual behaviors that arise from the previous ones. The construction also excludes those that don’t define their sexual orientation, and those who live out their sexuality in other forms than monogamous relationships or the aspiration for such relationships. In conclusion, it may be questioned whether the Discrimination Act fulfills its purpose of counteracting discrimination and promoting equality.},
  author       = {Carlsson, Sanne},
  keyword      = {diskursanalys,arbetsrätt,kön,genus,sexualitet,diskriminering,makt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Ojämställda konstruktioner? En diskursanalys av diskrimineringslagens konstruktioner av kön, genus och sexualitet},
  year         = {2012},
}