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Könsrelaterad förföljelse - en feministisk kritik av svensk flyktingrätt

Stavare, Jenni LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Tillämpningen av Genèvekonventionen i flyktingmottagande länder har kritiserats av internationell doktrin inom mänskliga rättigheter för att utgå från en manlig norm och ignorera de kränkningar som kvinnor utsätts för då de utspelar sig i den privata sfären. Kvinnors förföljelse har inte samma orsaker och tar inte alltid samma form som mäns, varför de kan ha svårare att få gehör för sina skyddsbehov. Samtidigt som denna kritik formulerats har UNHCR utformat riktlinjer för att vägleda konventionsstaternas tillämpning av flyktingbegreppet i relation till könsrelaterad förföljelse.

Sedan den 1 juli 2005 kan den som känner välgrundad fruktan för förföljelse på grund av kön beviljas flyktingstatus i Sverige till följd av en lagändring som... (More)
Tillämpningen av Genèvekonventionen i flyktingmottagande länder har kritiserats av internationell doktrin inom mänskliga rättigheter för att utgå från en manlig norm och ignorera de kränkningar som kvinnor utsätts för då de utspelar sig i den privata sfären. Kvinnors förföljelse har inte samma orsaker och tar inte alltid samma form som mäns, varför de kan ha svårare att få gehör för sina skyddsbehov. Samtidigt som denna kritik formulerats har UNHCR utformat riktlinjer för att vägleda konventionsstaternas tillämpning av flyktingbegreppet i relation till könsrelaterad förföljelse.

Sedan den 1 juli 2005 kan den som känner välgrundad fruktan för förföljelse på grund av kön beviljas flyktingstatus i Sverige till följd av en lagändring som innebar att kön fördes in som en skyddsgrund i utlänningslagens flyktingdefinition som en underkategori till skyddsgrunden och rekvisitet tillhörighet till viss samhällsgrupp. Sverige har på detta sätt velat anpassa sin lagstiftning till en internationellt ökad medvetenhet om kvinnors svårigheter att på lika villkor som män nå erkännande för den förföljelse de drabbas av och som har könsrelaterade aspekter.

Denna uppsats vill undersöka om införandet av denna nya skyddsgrund innebär att kvinnors skyddsbehov, så som de formulerats i feministisk kritik av internationell flyktingrätt, beaktas och i vilken mån de kan leda till flyktingstatus enligt svensk rätt. För att göra detta har innebörden av det rättsliga begreppet ”förföljelse på grund av kön” rekonstruerats med hjälp av skyddsgrundens särskilda förarbeten och med stöd i UNHCRs riktlinjer om könsrelaterad förföljelse, vilka även fungerat som en kontrasterande rättskälla där innehållet i svensk och utländsk tolkning av Genèvekonventionen skiljt sig åt. Eftersom det övergripande syftet är att jämföra svensk rätt med normativa hållpunkter för konventionens tolkning som formulerats i feministisk kritik av rätten, används såväl rättsdogmatisk metod, som intern och extern kritik av rätten.

Vid jämförelse av svensk rätt och UNHCRs riktlinjer framträder ett par rättsliga diskrepanser, rörande hanteringen av könsrelaterade skyddsanspråk under en särskild skyddsgrund och den rättsliga metodiken vid bedömningen av kausal länk mellan förföljelse och skyddsbehov. Dessa olikheter och dess effekter illustreras i analyser av tre prejudicerande rättsfall som behandlar könsrelaterade skyddsbehov inom den svenska flyktingrätten.

I ljuset av den feministiska teorin som används för att analysera innehållet i svensk rätt problematiseras effekterna av den svenska rättens utformning. Det som främst ställs i fråga är om en ny skyddsgrund förmår bidra till att könsroller problematiseras i flyktingskapsbedömningar med användning av ett genusperspektiv samt om den manliga hegemonin som präglat tillämpningen av mänskliga rättigheter utmanas eller upprätthålls. (Less)
Abstract
The determination of refugee status within the scope of the 1951 Geneva Convention on Refugee Status is traditionally carried out within a framework of male experiences. The claims of female asylum-seekers are often based on gender-related persecution and thus will not fit the profile of a convention refugee. As the gendered bias of the historical interpretation of the Geneva Convention is increasingly criticised, the need for a gender-sensitive interpretation is articulated. Feminist legal theory, refugee law scholars, as well as human rights doctrine have illustrated this issue during the past twenty years. International bodies have contemporaneously produced documents aimed at mending this loophole of refugee and human rights, such as... (More)
The determination of refugee status within the scope of the 1951 Geneva Convention on Refugee Status is traditionally carried out within a framework of male experiences. The claims of female asylum-seekers are often based on gender-related persecution and thus will not fit the profile of a convention refugee. As the gendered bias of the historical interpretation of the Geneva Convention is increasingly criticised, the need for a gender-sensitive interpretation is articulated. Feminist legal theory, refugee law scholars, as well as human rights doctrine have illustrated this issue during the past twenty years. International bodies have contemporaneously produced documents aimed at mending this loophole of refugee and human rights, such as the UNHCR Guidelines on Gender-Related Persecution.

Since July 2005 it is possible for asylum-seekers to receive refugee status in Sweden, owing to a well-founded fear of persecution on account of gender. This is due to an amendment of the Swedish Aliens Act in which gender was added as a ground for protection in the main refugee definition, being a subcategory of the ground membership of a particular social group. By this amendment Sweden meant to adapt its relevant legislation to an increasing gender awareness in refugee law discourse over the past decades, recognising the difficulties women meet in receiving equal recognition for their gender-related claims for asylum.

This essay studies the Swedish law reform with the aim to uncover whether the introduction of this new ground for refugee status means that the need for a gender-sensitive development of protection assessments, as they are constructed in feminist critique of international refugee law, will be regarded and to what extent they will result in refugee status. For this purpose the essay includes a reconstruction of the legal term ”persecution on account of gender (or sex)” based on Swedish legal preparatory work as well as the UNHCR Guidelines on Gender-Related Persecution, which have also acted as a contrasting source of law in those instances where Swedish law has been lacking in correspondence with the international interpretation of the Geneva Convention. The general purpose is to compare Swedish refugee law with the normative benchmarks for interpretation of the Geneva Convention that has been formulated in feminist critical theory. To achieve this, the law is scrutinized through use of both internal and external measures.

Comparing the Swedish law to the UNHCR Guidelines reveals a few discrepancies relating primarily to the construction of a separate protection ground for gender-related claims and the legal methodology in the assessment of a causal link between the persecution and a protection ground in claims regarding persecution in the private sphere. These disparities and their effects are illustrated through analysis of three legal cases dealing with gender-related protection claims.

In light of the feminist critical theory used to analyse the content of Swedish refugee law, the effects of the legal construction ”persecution on the account of gender” are discussed and critiqued. The main issue put into question is whether a new ground for protection enables a legal development where gender roles are questioned within refugee status assessments by use of gender perspectives and if the male hegemony that has characterised the application of human rights is challenged or maintained. (Less)
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author
Stavare, Jenni LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Gender-related percecution - a feminist critique of swedish refugee law
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
folkrätt, flyktingrätt, asylrätt, asyl, könsrelaterad förföljelse, kön, genusperspektiv, genus, diskriminering, könsroll, normer, flykting, skyddsbehov, utlänningsrätt, utlänningslagen, kvinnor, heder, migrationsrätt, public international law, refugee law, gender, percecution, asylum claims, gender-related, migration, international protection
language
Swedish
id
3131337
date added to LUP
2012-11-01 09:07:01
date last changed
2012-11-01 09:07:01
@misc{3131337,
  abstract     = {The determination of refugee status within the scope of the 1951 Geneva Convention on Refugee Status is traditionally carried out within a framework of male experiences. The claims of female asylum-seekers are often based on gender-related persecution and thus will not fit the profile of a convention refugee. As the gendered bias of the historical interpretation of the Geneva Convention is increasingly criticised, the need for a gender-sensitive interpretation is articulated. Feminist legal theory, refugee law scholars, as well as human rights doctrine have illustrated this issue during the past twenty years. International bodies have contemporaneously produced documents aimed at mending this loophole of refugee and human rights, such as the UNHCR Guidelines on Gender-Related Persecution. 

Since July 2005 it is possible for asylum-seekers to receive refugee status in Sweden, owing to a well-founded fear of persecution on account of gender. This is due to an amendment of the Swedish Aliens Act in which gender was added as a ground for protection in the main refugee definition, being a subcategory of the ground membership of a particular social group. By this amendment Sweden meant to adapt its relevant legislation to an increasing gender awareness in refugee law discourse over the past decades, recognising the difficulties women meet in receiving equal recognition for their gender-related claims for asylum. 

This essay studies the Swedish law reform with the aim to uncover whether the introduction of this new ground for refugee status means that the need for a gender-sensitive development of protection assessments, as they are constructed in feminist critique of international refugee law, will be regarded and to what extent they will result in refugee status. For this purpose the essay includes a reconstruction of the legal term ”persecution on account of gender (or sex)” based on Swedish legal preparatory work as well as the UNHCR Guidelines on Gender-Related Persecution, which have also acted as a contrasting source of law in those instances where Swedish law has been lacking in correspondence with the international interpretation of the Geneva Convention. The general purpose is to compare Swedish refugee law with the normative benchmarks for interpretation of the Geneva Convention that has been formulated in feminist critical theory. To achieve this, the law is scrutinized through use of both internal and external measures. 

Comparing the Swedish law to the UNHCR Guidelines reveals a few discrepancies relating primarily to the construction of a separate protection ground for gender-related claims and the legal methodology in the assessment of a causal link between the persecution and a protection ground in claims regarding persecution in the private sphere. These disparities and their effects are illustrated through analysis of three legal cases dealing with gender-related protection claims.

In light of the feminist critical theory used to analyse the content of Swedish refugee law, the effects of the legal construction ”persecution on the account of gender” are discussed and critiqued. The main issue put into question is whether a new ground for protection enables a legal development where gender roles are questioned within refugee status assessments by use of gender perspectives and if the male hegemony that has characterised the application of human rights is challenged or maintained.},
  author       = {Stavare, Jenni},
  keyword      = {folkrätt,flyktingrätt,asylrätt,asyl,könsrelaterad förföljelse,kön,genusperspektiv,genus,diskriminering,könsroll,normer,flykting,skyddsbehov,utlänningsrätt,utlänningslagen,kvinnor,heder,migrationsrätt,public international law,refugee law,gender,percecution,asylum claims,gender-related,migration,international protection},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Könsrelaterad förföljelse - en feministisk kritik av svensk flyktingrätt},
  year         = {2012},
}