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Skydd mot diskriminering av funktionshindrade vid arbetsbristsituationer - En analys av samspelet mellan diskrimineringslagen och anställningsskyddslagen i ett EU-rättsligt perspektiv.

Broström, Matilda LU (2012) JURM02 20122
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Funktionshindrade individers rätt till likabehandling, sysselsättning på lika villkor och integrering på arbetsmarknaden har varit ett hett ämne på såväl internationell som EU-rättslig nivå under de senaste åren. Trots det visar Arbetsdomstolens nyligen avgjorda mål AD 2012 nr 51 att den svenska rättsordningen tillåter att personer som har en nedsatt arbetsförmåga missgynnas genom arbetsbristuppsägningar. Det huvudsakliga syftet med uppsatsen är därför att utreda och analysera den närmare innebörden av skydd mot diskriminering av funktionshindrade vid arbetsbristsituationer.

Arbetstagarnas skydd mot godtycklig uppsägning återfinns huvudsakligen i lag (1982:80) om anställningsskydd och diskrimineringsskyddet stadgas främst i... (More)
Funktionshindrade individers rätt till likabehandling, sysselsättning på lika villkor och integrering på arbetsmarknaden har varit ett hett ämne på såväl internationell som EU-rättslig nivå under de senaste åren. Trots det visar Arbetsdomstolens nyligen avgjorda mål AD 2012 nr 51 att den svenska rättsordningen tillåter att personer som har en nedsatt arbetsförmåga missgynnas genom arbetsbristuppsägningar. Det huvudsakliga syftet med uppsatsen är därför att utreda och analysera den närmare innebörden av skydd mot diskriminering av funktionshindrade vid arbetsbristsituationer.

Arbetstagarnas skydd mot godtycklig uppsägning återfinns huvudsakligen i lag (1982:80) om anställningsskydd och diskrimineringsskyddet stadgas främst i diskrimineringslag (2008:567). På den EU-rättsliga nivån återfinns förbud mot godtycklig uppsägning huvudsakligen i Europarådets sociala stadga och i den Europeiska unionens stadga om de grundläggande rättigheterna. Det EU-rättsliga diskrimineringsskyddet återfinns främst i rådets direktiv 2000/78/EG av den 27 november 2000 om inrättande av en allmän ram för likabehandling.

I uppsatsen konstateras att kombinationen av att arbetsgivaren har en rätt att omplacera oberoende av turordningsreglerna, att åberopanden om fingerad arbetsbrist enbart i undantagsfall godtas av Arbetsdomstolen, att arbetsbrist konsumerar bakomliggande skäl av personlig karaktär samt att 23§ LAS inte har fått fullt utslag i praktiken, medför att anställningsskyddslagen inte erbjuder något långtgående skydd mot godtycklig behandling. Det är därför av hög vikt att det finns en fungerande diskrimineringslagstiftning. Funktionshinder skiljer sig från diskrimineringslagens övriga diskrimineringsgrunder eftersom funktionshinder normalt sett har en negativ inverkan på individens arbetsförmåga. För att likabehandlingsprincipen inte skall åsidosättas har arbetsgivaren därför en skyldighet att, till förmån för funktionshindrade arbetstagare, vidta skäliga stöd- och anpassningsåtgärder. EU-domstolen har ännu inte tagit ställning till den närmare innebörden av direktivets skälighetsbedömning men Arbetsdomstolen har satt kraven på stöd- och anpassningsåtgärder lågt. Följden av de låga kraven på stöd- och anpassningsåtgärder blir att diskrimineringslagen enbart erbjuder ett skydd för arbetstagare som har ett funktionshinder som i liten mån påverkar dess arbetsförmåga. För flertalet funktions¬hindrade arbetstagare medför kombinationen av diskrimineringslagens krav på jämförbar situation och Arbetsdomstolens låga krav på stöd- och anpassningsåtgärder att ingalunda diskrimineringslagen kan sägas erbjuda något skydd vid arbetsbristsituationer.

I huvudsak stämmer den svenska rättens reglering väl överens med EU-rätten. Det finns emellertid två aspekter, skälighetsbedömningen av stöd- och anpassningsåtgärder och fördelningen av bevisbördan, där jag anser att Arbetsdomstolens rättsutveckling rimmar illa med EU-rätten. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
The right to equal treatment, employment on equal terms and labor market integration regarding disabled individuals has been a topic for discussion on both international and EU legal in recent years. In spite hereof, the Swedish Labour Court´s recent decision in case AD 2012 No. 51 shows that the Swedish judicial system allows for people with a reduced working capacity to be at a disadvantage in redundancy situations. The main object of this paper is therefore to investigate and analyze the detailed meaning of protection against discrimination of disabled individuals in redundancy situations.

Worker protection against arbitrary dismissal is mainly found in the Employment Protection Act (SFS 1982:80) and protection against... (More)
The right to equal treatment, employment on equal terms and labor market integration regarding disabled individuals has been a topic for discussion on both international and EU legal in recent years. In spite hereof, the Swedish Labour Court´s recent decision in case AD 2012 No. 51 shows that the Swedish judicial system allows for people with a reduced working capacity to be at a disadvantage in redundancy situations. The main object of this paper is therefore to investigate and analyze the detailed meaning of protection against discrimination of disabled individuals in redundancy situations.

Worker protection against arbitrary dismissal is mainly found in the Employment Protection Act (SFS 1982:80) and protection against discrimination is mainly provided by the Discrimination Act (SFS 2008:567). On an EU legal level, prohibition against arbitrary dismissal is mostly found in the European Social Charter and in the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights. Protection against discrimination is mainly found in Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation.

In this paper, it is found that the combination of the Swedish model with its collective agreements, the employer´s right to reassign employees regardless of priority rules, the Court´s restrictive review under the real foundation the lack of practical enforcement of § 23 in the Employment Protection Act brings that disabled workers cannot be said to receive any extensive protection against arbitrary treatment in a redundancy situation. It is therefore necessary that a functioning discrimination legislative is in effect. Disability is set apart from the other discrimination grounds as it normally has a negative impact on the individual´s working capacity. To ensure that the non-discrimination principle is not disregarded, both Directive (2000/78/EC) and the Discrimination Act (SFS 2008:567) provide that the employer has an obligation to take reasonable remedial measures and make adjustments to accommodate the disabled worker. The European Union Court has not yet ruled on the detailed meaning of reasonable accommodation but the Swedish Labour Court has set the requirement for accommodation of disabled workers low. For the majority of disabled workers, the combination of the Discrimination Act´s requirements on a ”comparable situation” and the Swedish Labour Court´s low requirements on remedial measures and adjustments brings that the Discrimination Act cannot be said to provide any protection in redundancy situations.

The Swedish law regulation regarding protection against disability discrimination in redundancy situations are essentially well in line with EU law. However, there are two aspects, adjustments to accommodate the disabled worker and the burden of proof where I think that it is questionable whether the Swedish law is in compliance with EU law. (Less)
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author
Broström, Matilda LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Protection against discrimination of disabled individuals in redundancy situations- An analysis of the interaction between the Employment Protection Act and the Discrimination Act in an EU law perspective.
course
JURM02 20122
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Arbetsrätt
language
Swedish
id
3242453
date added to LUP
2013-01-28 13:14:11
date last changed
2013-01-28 13:14:11
@misc{3242453,
  abstract     = {The right to equal treatment, employment on equal terms and labor market integration regarding disabled individuals has been a topic for discussion on both international and EU legal in recent years. In spite hereof, the Swedish Labour Court´s recent decision in case AD 2012 No. 51 shows that the Swedish judicial system allows for people with a reduced working capacity to be at a disadvantage in redundancy situations. The main object of this paper is therefore to investigate and analyze the detailed meaning of protection against discrimination of disabled individuals in redundancy situations. 

Worker protection against arbitrary dismissal is mainly found in the Employment Protection Act (SFS 1982:80) and protection against discrimination is mainly provided by the Discrimination Act (SFS 2008:567). On an EU legal level, prohibition against arbitrary dismissal is mostly found in the European Social Charter and in the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights. Protection against discrimination is mainly found in Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation. 

In this paper, it is found that the combination of the Swedish model with its collective agreements, the employer´s right to reassign employees regardless of priority rules, the Court´s restrictive review under the real foundation the lack of practical enforcement of § 23 in the Employment Protection Act brings that disabled workers cannot be said to receive any extensive protection against arbitrary treatment in a redundancy situation. It is therefore necessary that a functioning discrimination legislative is in effect. Disability is set apart from the other discrimination grounds as it normally has a negative impact on the individual´s working capacity. To ensure that the non-discrimination principle is not disregarded, both Directive (2000/78/EC) and the Discrimination Act (SFS 2008:567) provide that the employer has an obligation to take reasonable remedial measures and make adjustments to accommodate the disabled worker. The European Union Court has not yet ruled on the detailed meaning of reasonable accommodation but the Swedish Labour Court has set the requirement for accommodation of disabled workers low. For the majority of disabled workers, the combination of the Discrimination Act´s requirements on a ”comparable situation” and the Swedish Labour Court´s low requirements on remedial measures and adjustments brings that the Discrimination Act cannot be said to provide any protection in redundancy situations. 

The Swedish law regulation regarding protection against disability discrimination in redundancy situations are essentially well in line with EU law. However, there are two aspects, adjustments to accommodate the disabled worker and the burden of proof where I think that it is questionable whether the Swedish law is in compliance with EU law.},
  author       = {Broström, Matilda},
  keyword      = {Arbetsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Skydd mot diskriminering av funktionshindrade vid arbetsbristsituationer - En analys av samspelet mellan diskrimineringslagen och anställningsskyddslagen i ett EU-rättsligt perspektiv.},
  year         = {2012},
}